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Apalone mutica (LE SUEUR, 1827)

IUCN Red List - Apalone mutica - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaTrionychidae (Trionychinae), Testudines (turtles) 
SubspeciesApalone mutica mutica (LE SUEUR, 1827)
Apalone mutica calvata (WEBB 1959) 
Common NamesE: Smooth Softshelled Turtle
G: Glatte Weichschildkröte
mutica: Midland Smooth Softshell
calvata: Gulf Coast Smooth Softshell 
SynonymTrionyx muticus LE SUEUR 1827: 263
Aspidonectes ferox — WAGLER 1830
Trionyx Muticus — DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1835: 484
Amyda mutica — BURT 1935
Amyda mutica — CONANT 1938
Trionyx muticus — WEBB 1973
Trionyx muticus — STEBBINS 1985: 109
Trionyx muticus — ALDERTON 1988
Apalone mutica — CROTHER 2000
Apalone mutica — TTWG 2014

Apalone mutica mutica (LE SUEUR 1827)
Potamochelys microcephalus GRAY 1864
Trionyx muticus muticus — WEBB 1959
Trionyx muticus muticus — STEBBINS 1985: 109
Apalone mutica mutica — ERNST & BARBOUR 1989
Apalone mutica mutica — CONANT & COLLINS 1991: 79
Apalone mutica mutica — CROTHER 2000
Apalone mutica mutica — TTWG 2014

Apalone mutica calvata (WEBB 1959)
Trionyx muticus calvatus WEBB 1959
Apalone mutica calvata — ERNST & BARBOUR 1989
Apalone mutica calvata — CONANT & COLLINS 1991: 79
Apalone mutica calvata — CROTHER 2000
Apalone mutica calvata — TTWG 2014 
DistributionUSA (Ohio, Minnesota, S North Dakota, South Dakota, E/S Nebraska, Kansas, Oklahoma, N/E Texas, Mississippi, Missouri, Iowa, Arkansas, Louisiana, Illinois, Wisconsin, Indiana, Kentucky, Tennessee, West Virginia, Alabama, W Florida Panhandle, E New Mexico; Considered extirpated in W Pennsylvania)

calvata: Mississippi; Type locality: Pearl River, Roses Bluff, 14 mi E Jackson, Rankin County, Mississippi; W. F. Childers; August 25, 1952.

Type locality: "Newharmony, sur le Wabash" (=New Harmony, Wabash River), Posey County, Indiana, USA  
TypesSyntypes: MNHN 564, 4143, 7977, 8813 (formerly 787), and 8814 (formerly 788); MNHN 8813 designated lectotype by Webb (1962: 534, 536).

Holotype: UIMNH 31071; paratype: KU [calvata] 
CommentReproduction: oviparous. KUZMIN (2002) reported a hybrid between Apalone mutica and Pelodiscus sinensis. 
References
  • Alderton, D. 1988. Turtles and tortoises of the world. Facts on File, New York.
  • Bartlett, R. D. & Bartlett, P. 1999. A Field Guide to Texas Reptiles and Amphibians. Gulf Publishing Co., Houston, Texas, 331 pp.
  • Bonin, F., Devaux, B. & Dupré, A. 2006. Turtles of the World. English translation by P.C.H. Pritchard. Johns Hopkins University Press, 416 pp.
  • Braun, Andrew P. and John West. 2014. Geographic Distribution: Apalone mutica (smooth softshell). Herpetological Review 45 (3): 459
  • Burt, Charles E. 1935. Further records of the ecology and distribution of amphibians and reptiles in the middle west. American Midland Naturalist 16 (3): 311-336 - get paper here
  • Caldwell, J.P., & Collins, J.T. 1981. Turtles in Kansas. AMS Pub., Lawrence, KS 67 pp.
  • Conant, Roger 1938. The Reptiles of Ohio. American Midland Naturalist 20 (1): 1-200 - get paper here
  • Conant,R. & Collins,J.T. 1991. A Field Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians of Eastern/Central North America, 3rd ed. Houghton Mifflin (Boston/New York), xx + 450 p.
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  • Ernst,C.H. and Barbour,R.W. 1989. Turtles of the World. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington D.C. - London
  • Green, N.B., & Pauley, T.K. 1987. Amphibians and reptiles in West Virginia. Univ. of Pittsburgh Press, Pittsburgh, 241 pp.
  • Hennig, A.S. 2011. Apalone mutica mutica (LESUEUR, 1827). Elaphe 19 (1): 77-78
  • Jamniczky, H. A. and A. P. Russell 2007. Reappraisal of Patterns of Nonmarine Cryptodiran Turtle Carotid Circulation: Evidence From Osteological Correlates and Soft Tissues. JOURNAL OF MORPHOLOGY 268:571–587
  • Kuzmin, S.L. 2002. The turtles of Russia and other Ex-soviet Republics. Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt, 159 pp.
  • Le Sueur 1827. Mem. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris 15: 258, 263
  • McCafferty, Katherine A.;Mann, Adam M. 1996. Geographic Distribution. Apalone mutica. Herpetological Review 27 (1): 31 - get paper here
  • McCord, W.P. & Joseph-Ouni, M. 2005. Chelonian Illustrations #19: American softshell turtles. Reptilia (GB) (38): 78-81 - get paper here
  • Meylan, P.A. 1987. The phylogenetic relationships of soft-shelled turtles (Family Trionychidae). Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 186 (1):1-101.
  • Mullins, M.A. Janzen, F.J. 2006. Phenotypic effects of thermal means and variances on Smooth Softshell Turtle (Apalone mutica) embryos and hatchlings. Herpetologica 62 (1): 27-36 - get paper here
  • Nagle, R.D. et al. 2003. Parental investment, embryo growth, and hatchling lipid reserves in softshell turtles (Apalone mutica) from Arkansas. Herpetologica 59 (2): 145-154 - get paper here
  • Plummer, Michael V. 2007. Nest emergence of Smooth Softshell (Apalone mutica) hatchlings. Herp. Cons. Biol. 2 (1): 61
  • Siebenrock, F. 1902. Zur Systematik der Schildkrötenfamilie Trionychidae Bell, nebst der Beschreibung einer neuen Cyclanorbis - Art. Sitzungsber. K. Akad. Wiss. Wien. Math-Naturwiss. Cl. 111: 807-846 - get paper here
  • Smith, J. R.;Brown, Chuck;Thornton, Okla W., Jr 1996. Geographic Distribution. Apalone mutica mutica. Herpetological Review 27 (1): 31 - get paper here
  • Stebbins,R.C. 1985. A Field Guide to Western Reptiles and Amphibians, 2nd ed. Houghton Mifflin, Boston
  • TTWG [Peter Paul van Dijk, John B. Iverson, Anders G.J. Rhodin, H. Bradley Shaffer, and Roger Bour] 2014. Turtles of the World, 7th Edition: Annotated Checklist of Taxonomy, Synonymy, Distribution with Maps, and Conservation Status. 000.v7. Chelonian Research Monographs (ISSN 1088-7105) No. 5, doi:10.3854/crm.5.000.checklist.v7.2014 - get paper here
  • Valenzuela, Nicole 2008. Evolution of the gene network underlying gonadogenesis in turtles with temperature-dependent and genotypic sex determination. Integrative and Comparative Biology, 48 (4): 476–485
  • Valverde, J. 2007. Weichschildkröten. Reptilia (Münster) 12 (68): 16-23 - get paper here
  • Wagler, Jean G. 1830. Natürliches System der Amphibien, mit vorangehender Classification der Säugetiere und Vögel. Ein Beitrag zur vergleichenden Zoologie. 1.0. Cotta, München, Stuttgart, and Tübingen, 354 pp.
  • Webb R G 1990. Trionyx Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire. Softshell turtles. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles 487: 1-7 - get paper here
  • Webb, R.G. 1959. Description of a new softshell turtle from the southeastern United States. Univ. Kansas Publ. Mus. Nat. Hist 11 (9): 517-525 - get paper here
  • Webb, R.G. 1962. North American Recent soft-shelled turtles (Family Trionychidae). University of Kansas Publications. Museum of Natural History. Lawrence. 13 (10): 429-611 - get paper here
  • Webb, Robert G. 1973. Trionyx muticus. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles (139): 1-2 - get paper here
  • Weisrock,D.W. & Janzen,F.J. 2000. Comparative molecular phylogeography of North American Softshell Turtles (Apalone): implication for regional and wide-scale historical evolutionary forces. Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 14 (1): 152-164 - get paper here
  • Zimmer-Shaffer, Stephanie A., Jeffrey T. Briggler, and Joshua J. Millspaugh 2014. Modeling the Effects of Commercial Harvest on Population Growth of River Turtles Chelonian Conservation and Biology Dec 2014, Vol. 13, No. 2: 227-236. - get paper here
 
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