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Apostolepis assimilis (REINHARDT, 1861)

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Higher TaxaColubridae (Dipsadinae), Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes) 
Subspecies 
Common NamesCommon red Blackhead, Reinhardt's Burrowing Snake 
SynonymElapomorphus assimilis REINHARDT 1861: 235
Elapomorphus assimilis — JAN 1865
Elapomorphus assimilis — STRAUCH 1884: 586
Apostolepis assimilis — BOULENGER 1896: 234
Apostolepis assimilis — PETERS et al. 1970: 22
Apostolepis assimilis — CEI 1993
Apostolepis assimilis — DE LEMA 2002
Apostolepis assimilis — BERNILS et al. 2007
Apostolepis assimilis — MARTINS & DE LEMA 2015
Apostolepis assimilis — WALLACH et al. 2014: 50 
DistributionC/SW Brazil (central Brazilian cerrados, Goias, Mato Grosso), Argentina (Chaco, uncertain), E Paraguay

Type locality: Minas Gerais, Brazil  
Reproductionoviparous 
TypesHolotype: ZMUC 63806 
DiagnosisDiagnosis: Rostral short and rounded, not prominent; little visible from above;
ventrals 236-267 in males, 246-270 in females; subcaudals 31-39 in males, 25-31 in females, light snout blotch cream; white supralabial blotch usually covering at least two supralabials; a single white nuchal color 2-3 scales long, followed by a black cervical color 3-4, restricted dorsally. 
CommentSynonymy that of CEI 1993.

Belongs to the assimilis species group of Apostololepis that can be distinguished within the genus Apostolepis. The group is characterized by a uniform red dorsal pattern, broad nucho-cervical collars, enlarged light snout blotch, dark ventral head, and entirely black terminal shield. 
Etymology 
References
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1896. Catalogue of the snakes in the British Museum, Vol. 3. London (Taylor & Francis), xiv + 727 pp. - get paper here
  • Cacciali, Pier; Norman J. Scott, Aida Luz Aquino Ortíz, Lee A. Fitzgerald, and Paul Smith 2016. The Reptiles of Paraguay: Literature, Distribution, and an Annotated Taxonomic Checklist SPECIAL PUBLICATION OF THE MUSEUM OF SOUTHWESTERN BIOLOGY, NUMBER 11: 1–373 - get paper here
  • Cei, J. M. 1993. Reptiles del noroeste, nordeste y este de la Argentina. Museo Regionale Sci. Naturale Torino, Monografie 14: 1-949
  • FERRAREZZI, HEBERT; FAUSTO ERRITTO BARBO & CRISTINA ESPAÑA ALBUQUERQUE 2005. PHYLOGENETIC RELATIONSHIPS OF A NEW SPECIES OF APOSTOLEPIS FROM BRAZILIAN CERRADO WITH NOTES ON THE ASSIMILIS GROUP (SERPENTES: COLUBRIDAE: XENODONTINAE: ELAPOMORPHINI). Papeis Avulsos de Zoologia 45(16): 215-229 - get paper here
  • FRANÇA, DANIELLA. P. F.; FAUSTO E. BARBO, NELSON J. SILVA-JÚNIOR, HELDER L. R. SILVA, HUSSAM ZAHER 2018. A new species of Apostolepis (Serpentes, Dipsadidae, Elapomorphini) from the Cerrado of Central Brazil. Zootaxa 4521 (4): 438-552 - get paper here
  • Franca, F.G.R.; Daniel O. Mesquita, Cristiano C. Nogueira, and Alexandre F. B. Araújo 2008. Phylogeny and Ecology Determine Morphological Structure in a Snake Assemblage in the Central Brazilian Cerrado. Copeia 2008 (1): 23-38 - get paper here
  • Giraudo, A. & G. J. Scrocchi 1998. A new species of Apostolepis (Serpentes: Colubridae) and comments on the genus in Argentina. Herpetologica 54 (4): 470-476 - get paper here
  • Jan, G. 1865. Iconographie générale des ophidiens. 14. Livraison. [Elapomorphus d’Orbignyi, Coronella getulus var. Sayi]. J.B. Bailière et Fils, Paris - get paper here
  • Klaczko, J; Sherratt E, Setz EZF 2016. Are Diet Preferences Associated to Skulls Shape Diversification in Xenodontine Snakes? PLoS One 11 (2): e0148375. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0148375 - get paper here
  • Lema, T. de 2004. Description of a new species of Apostolepis Cope, 1861 (Serpentes, Elapomorphinae) from Brazilian Cerrado. Acta Biologica Leopoldensia, 26(1): 155-160
  • Lema, Thales de 2001. Fossorial snake genus Apostolepis from South America (Serpentes: Colubridae: Elapomorphinae). Cuadernos de herpetología 15 (1): 29-43.
  • Lema, Thales de 2002. Redescription of Apostolepis sanctaeritae Werner 1924 (Serpentes, Colubridae), and a comparison with related species. Copeia 2002 (4): 1147-1151 - get paper here
  • Lema, Thales De & Márcia Ferret Renner 2005. Contribuição ao conhecimento taxonômico de Apostolepis flavotorquata (Serpentes, Elapomorphinae). Biociências 13 (2): 163-175
  • Lema, Thales De & Márcia Ferret Renner 2011. A new species of Apostolepis (Serpentes, Colubridae, Elapomorphini), belonging to assimilis group, found in Brazilian Cerrado. Ciência em Movimento 13 (27): 71-76
  • Linares, Antônio Meira and Paula Cabral Eterovick 2013. Herpetofaunal Surveys Support Successful Reconciliation Ecology in Secondary and Human-Modified Habitats at the Inhotim Institute, Southeastern Brazil. Herpetologica 69 (2): 237-256. - get paper here
  • Martins, L.A. & Lema, T. de 2015. Elapomorphini (Serpentes, Xenodontinae) do Brasil sudoeste. Neotropical Biology and Conservation 10(2): 93-102; doi: 10.4013/nbc.2015.102.05 - get paper here
  • Mattison, Chris 2007. The New Encyclopedia of Snakes. Princeton University Press
  • Menezes FA, Abegg AD, Silva BR, Franco FL, Feio RN 2018. Composition and natural history of the snakes from the Parque Estadual da Serra do Papagaio, southern Minas Gerais, Serra da Mantiqueira, Brazil. ZooKeys 797: 117-160 - get paper here
  • Reinhardt 1861. Herpetologiske Middelelser. II. Beskrivelser af nogle nye til Calamariernes Familie henhörende Slänger. Vidensk. Meddel. Naturhist. Foren. Kjöbenhavn 2 [1860]: 229-250 - get paper here
  • Santos FM dos, Entiauspe-Neto OM, Araújo JS, de Souza MB, de Lema T, Strussmann C, de Albuquerque NR 2018. A new species of burrowing snake (Serpentes: Dipsadidae: Apostolepis) from the state of Mato Grosso, Central-West region of Brazil. Zoologia 35: 1-10 - get paper here
  • Santos, D.L.; S.P. Andrade; E.P. Victor-Jr.; W. Vaz-Silva 2014. Amphibians and reptiles from southeastern Goiás, Central Brazil. Check List 10 (1): 131-148 - get paper here
  • Silva, M.C. da, R.H. de Oliveira, D.H. Morais, R.A. Kawashita-Ribeiro, E.S. de Brito & R.W. Ávila 2015. Amphibians and reptiles of a Cerrado area in Primavera do Leste Municipality, Mato Grosso State, Central Brazil. Salamandra 51 (2): 187-194 - get paper here
  • Strauch,A. 1884. Bemerkungen über die Schlangengattung Elapomorphus aus der Familie der Calamariden. 2nd. Ed. Bull. Acad. Imp. Sci. St. Petersbourg 29: 541-590 - get paper here
  • Torello-Viera, Natália F. and Otavio A.V. Marques 2017. Daily Activity of Neotropical Dipsadid Snakes South American J. Herp. 12 (2): 128-135. - get paper here
  • Vaz-Silva, W. et al. 2007. Herpetofauna, Espora Hydroelectric Power Plant, state of Goiás, Brazil. Check List 3 (4): 338-345 - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
 
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