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Apostolepis nigroterminata BOULENGER, 1896

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Higher TaxaColubridae (Dipsadinae), Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Common NamesE: Peru Burrowing Snake, Peru Blackhead
Portuguese: Cobrinha-da-Terra 
SynonymApostolepis nigroterminata BOULENGER 1896: 235
Apostolepis nigroterminata — HARVEY 1999
Apostolepis nigroterminata — DE LEMA 2002
Apostolepis nigroterminata — WALLACH et al. 2014: 52
Apostolepis nigroterminata — NOGUEIRA et al. 2019 
DistributionE Peru, W Brazil (Acre), Bolivia

Type locality: Cayaria [= Callaria, Ucayali], NE Peru  
TypesHolotype: BMNH 1946.1.9.77 
DiagnosisDiagnosis: Similar to Apostolepis nigrolineata, differing by presence of white nape collar (vs. absent in the adult), red dorsum in adult (vs. brown or tan), head wider than neck (vs. head with same diameter of neck); PA in divergent disposition (vs. parallel); PF pentagonal (vs. hexagonal); lateral stripe thin with lower side dark (vs. lateral wider, with yellowish white or one vestigial or dotted stripe). Also similar to A. borellii, from which it differs by stocky body (vs. slandering body), head short and wide, with snout round and wide (vs. head narrow, snout slender), wider than neck (vs. equal to neck diameter), red dorsal coloration (vs. brown) (Table 1 in LEMA & RENNER 2016). 
CommentSynonymy: this species has been previously synonymized with A. borelli and then revalidated. See A. borelli. 
  • ALBUQUERQUE, NELSON RUFINO DE & THALES DE LEMA 2012. Description of the second known specimen of Apostolepis intermedia (Serpentes, Colubridae, Xenodontinae). Zootaxa 3325: 53–58 - get paper here
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1896. Catalogue of the snakes in the British Museum, Vol. 3. London (Taylor & Francis), xiv + 727 pp. - get paper here
  • CATENAZZI, A., LEHR, E. & VON MAY, R. 2013. The amphibians and reptiles of Manu National Park and its buffer zone, Amazon basin and eastern slopes of the Andes, Peru. Biota Neotropica 13 (4): 269-283
  • Gonzalez R. C. et al. 2020. Lista dos Nomes Populares dos Répteis no Brasil – Primeira Versão. Herpetologia Brasileira 9 (2): 121 – 214 - get paper here
  • Harvey, Michael B. 1999. Revision of Bolivian Apostolepis (Squamata: Colubridae). Copeia 1999 (2): 388-409 - get paper here
  • Lema, T. de & M. F. Renner 2004. New species of Apostolepis from Alto Tocantins, Brazil, with comments on the striped pattern species (Serpentes, Elapomorphinae). Biociências 12(2): 139-145
  • Lema, T. de & M. F. Renner 2016. Status of Apostolepis borellii Peracca 1904 (Serpentes, Xenodontinae), with restriction of the A. nigroterminata concept. Neotropical Biology and Conservation 11(2):62-71, doi: 10.4013/nbc.2016.112.02 - get paper here
  • Lema, T. de & Renner, M.F. 2006. A new species of Apostolepis with striped pattern from Mato Grosso, Brasil (Serpentes, Elapomorphine). Ciência em movimento 8: 13-18
  • Lema, Thales de 2001. Fossorial snake genus Apostolepis from South America (Serpentes: Colubridae: Elapomorphinae). Cuadernos de herpetología 15 (1): 29-43.
  • Llanqui IB, Salas CY, Oblitas MP 2019. A preliminary checklist of amphibians and reptiles from the vicinity of La Nube Biological Station, Bahuaja-Sonene National Park, Peru. Check List 15 (5): 773–796 - get paper here
  • Martins, L.A. & Lema, T. de 2015. Elapomorphini (Serpentes, Xenodontinae) do Brasil sudoeste. Neotropical Biology and Conservation 10(2): 93-102; doi: 10.4013/nbc.2015.102.05 - get paper here
  • Nogueira, Cristiano C.; Antonio J.S. Argôlo, Vanesa Arzamendia, Josué A. Azevedo, Fausto E. Barbo, Renato S. Bérnils, Bruna E. Bolochio, Marcio Borges-Martins, Marcela Brasil-Godinho, Henrique Braz, Marcus A. Buononato, Diego F. Cisneros-Heredia, 2019. Atlas of Brazilian snakes: verified point-locality maps to mitigate the Wallacean shortfall in a megadiverse snake fauna. South American J. Herp. 14 (Special Issue 1):1-274 - get paper here
  • Peracca, M.G. 1904. Viaggio del Dr. A. Borelli nel Matto Grosso brasiliano e nel Paraguay, 1899. IX. Rettili ed amfibii. Boll. Mus. Zool. Univ. Torino 19 (460): 1-15
  • Rabosky, Daniel L.; Rudolf von May, Michael C. Grundler and Alison R. Davis Rabosky 2019. The Western Amazonian Richness Gradient for Squamate Reptiles: Are There Really Fewer Snakes and Lizards in Southwestern Amazonian Lowlands? Diversity 11: 199; doi:10.3390/d11100199 - get paper here
  • Santos FM dos, Entiauspe-Neto OM, Araújo JS, de Souza MB, de Lema T, Strussmann C, de Albuquerque NR 2018. A new species of burrowing snake (Serpentes: Dipsadidae: Apostolepis) from the state of Mato Grosso, Central-West region of Brazil. Zoologia 35: 1-10 - get paper here
  • Santos, Marina Meireles dos; Robson Waldemar Ávila and Ricardo Alexandre Kawashita-Ribeiro. 2011. Checklist of the amphibians and reptiles in Nobres municipality, Mato Grosso state, central Brazil. Herpetology Notes 4: 55-461 - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
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