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Arizona elegans KENNICOTT, 1859

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Higher TaxaColubridae, Colubrinae, Lampropeltini, Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes) 
SubspeciesArizona elegans arenicola DIXON 1960
Arizona elegans candida KLAUBER 1946
Arizona elegans eburnata KLAUBER 1946
Arizona elegans expolita KLAUBER 1946
Arizona elegans elegans KENNICOT 1859
Arizona elegans noctivaga KLAUBER 1946
Arizona elegans occidentalis BLANCHARD 1924
Arizona elegans philipi KLAUBER 1946 
Common NamesE: arenicola: Texas Glossy Snake
candida: Mojave Glossy Snake
eburnata: Desert Glossy Snake
elegans: Eastern Glossy Snake, Kansas Glossy Snake
noctovaga: Arizona Glossy Snake
occidentalis: Western Glossy Snake, California Glossy Snake, Painted Desert Glossy Snake
G: Arizonanatter 
SynonymArizona elegans KENNICOT in BAIRD 1859: 18
Pityophis elegans — COPE
Rhinechis elegans — COPE 1886: 284
Coluber arizonae — BOULENGER 1894: 66
Arizona elegans blanchardi KLAUBER 1946: 328
Arizona elegans australis WILLIAMS, CHRAPLIWY & SMITH 1961
Arizona elegans — STEBBINS 1985: 186
Arizona elegans arenicola — CONANT & COLLINS 1991: 201
Arizona elegans elegans — CONANT & COLLINS 1991: 201
Arizona elegans philipi — CONANT & COLLINS 1991: 201
Arizona elegans — LINER 1994
Arizona elegans elegans — TENNANT & BARTLETT 2000: 374
Arizona elegans — CROTHER et al. 2012
Arizona elegans — WALLACH et al. 2014: 55

Arizona elegans arenicola DIXON 1960
Arizona elegans arenicola — TENNANT & BARTLETT 2000: 375
Arizona elegans arenicola — CROTHER 2000: 56
Arizona elegans arenicola — CROTHER et al. 2012

Arizona elegans candida KLAUBER 1946
Arizona elegans candida KLAUBER 1946: 364
Arizona elegans candida — CROTHER 2000: 56
Arizona elegans candida — CROTHER et al. 2012

Arizona elegans eburnata KLAUBER 1946
Arizona elegans eburnata KLAUBER 1946: 350
Arizona elegans eburnata — STEBBINS 1985: 188
Arizona elegans eburnata — CROTHER 2000: 56
Arizona elegans eburnata — CROTHER et al. 2012

Arizona elegans expolita KLAUBER 1946
Arizona elegans expolita KLAUBER 1946: 340
Arizona elegans expolita — SMIT & TAYLOR 1950: 327
Arizona elegans expolita — DIXON & FLEET 1976
Arizona elegans expolita — WEBB 1984
Arizona elegans expolita — TANNER 1985: 628
Arizona elegans expolita — LINER 2008

Arizona elegans noctivaga KLAUBER 1946
Arizona elegans noctivaga — KLAUBER 1946: 343
Arizona elegans noctivaga — HARDY 1969: 156
Arizona elegans noctivaga — STEBBINS 1985: 188
Arizona elegans noctovaga — LINER 1994
Arizona elegans noctivaga — CROTHER 2000: 56
Arizona elegans noctivaga — STEBBINS 2003: 363
Arizona elegans noctivaga — LINER 2008
Arizona elegans noctivaga — CROTHER et al. 2012

Arizona elegans occidentalis BLANCHARD 1924
Arizona elegans occidentalis — KLAUBER 1938
Arizona elegans occidentalis — KLAUBER 1946: 372
Arizona elegans occidentalis — STEBBINS 1985: 188
Arizona occidentalis — LINER 1994
Argyrogena occidentalis
Arizona elegans occidentalis — CROTHER 2000: 56
Arizona elegans occidentalis — CROTHER et al. 2012
Arizona elegans occidentalis — THOMSON et al. 2016

Arizona elegans philipi KLAUBER 1946
Arizona elegans philipi KLAUBER 1946: 333
Arizona elegans philipi — TENNANT & BARTLETT 2000: 377
Arizona elegans philipi — CROTHER 2000: 56
Arizona elegans philipi — CROTHER et al. 2012 
DistributionUSA (California, S Nevada, Arizona, New Mexico, Texas, Oklahoma, W Kansas, E Colorado, SW Nebraska),
Mexico (Baja California, Sonora, Chihuahua, Sinaloa, Durango, Coahuila, Nuevo Leon, Tamaulipas, San Luis Potosí, Aguascalientes)

arenicola: S Texas, Mexico (Coahuila); Type locality: Duval County, Texas.

blanchardi (invalid): Type locality: "Cheyenne County, Kansas, 13 miles southeast of Benkelman, Dundy County:, Nebraska,"

candida: California; Type locality: "Kramer Hills (6 miles south of Kramer Junction on US 395), San Bernardino County, California."

eburnata: California; Type locality: "Bensons Dry Lake, in eastern San Diego County, California (3 miles west of the Imperial County Line on highway Cal. 78)."

elegans: Texas, New Mexico, Oklahoma; Type locality: “Rio Grande”, restrIcted to lower Rio Grande by Yarrow (1883); restricted to Eagle Pass, Maverick County, Texas by SMITH & TAYLOR 1950.

expolita: Chihuahua, Durango (WEBB 1984); Type locality: "Casas Grandes, Chihuahua, Mexico.”

noctivaga: Mexico (Sinaloa, Sonora), USA (Arizona); Type locality: “8 miles northwest of Owlshead, Pinal County, Arizona (Owlshead is on U.S. 80, 45 miles southeast of Florence)."

philipi: W Texas, New Mexico  
TypesLectotype, USNM 1722, designated by Blanchard (1924: 4)
Holotype: CAS; Paratype SDSNH 35343 [blanchardi]
Holotype: SDSNH 34191; paratypes SDSNH [candida]
Holotype: SDSNH 33094; paratypes SDSNH [eburnata]
Holotype: SDSNH 34188; paratypes SDSNH [noctivaga]
Holotype: SDSNH 34456; paratypes SDSNH 20990, 34426 [philipi]
Holotype: UIMNH 48721; Mexico: 21 mi SW Lreto, San Luis Potosi, Aguascalientes; K. L. Williams; July 20, 1958 [australis]
Lectotype: BMNH, date and collector unknown, designated by Williams and Smith (1962:300) [arenicola]
Holotype: USNM 46374, collected by E. W. Nelson and E. A. Goldman, 27 May 1899 [expolita]
Holotype: USNM 54372, collected by J. C. Thompson, May 1916 [occidentalis] 
CommentSubspecies: Arizona elegans pacata KLAUBER 1946 has been elevated to full species status. A number of subspecies of A. elegans are considered as subspecies of A. occidentalis by some authors. Collins (1991), in a peer-reviewed article, recommended that occidentalis be recognized as a distinct species, a more conservative taxonomy than that in previous use. Collins (1997) presented this proposed change to his snake systematist group, composed of John E. Cadle, Brian I. Crother, Harry W. Greene, L. Lee Grismer, James A. MacMahon, James R. McCranie, and Samuel S. Sweet, and the majority of those individuals responding recommended that occidentalis be so recognized. Collins (1997) followed that recommendation. Liner (1994) also considered this taxon a species distinct from A. elegans, as proposed by Collins (1991). [from:]

Distribution: Dixon & Fleet (1976) proposed that Yarrow's (1883) restriction of the type locality was in error.

Type species: Arizona elegans KENNICOT 1859 is the type species of the genus Arizona KENNICOT in BAIRD 1859.

Phylogenetics: see Dahn et al. 2018 for a phylogeny of Lampropeltini. 
EtymologyThe origin of the generic name is unclear but may come from the state of Arizona which is named after the American Indian name “arizonac” for the region.
The name elegans (Latin) means "tasteful, choice, fine, or select" and refers to the color pattern.
The name arenicola (Latin) means "sand loving" and refers to the principal soil type where the species occurs.
The name candida (Latin) means "shining white, bright" and refers to the pale color pattern.
The name eburnata (Latin) means "of ivory" and refers to a pale color pattern.
The name expolita (Latin) means "smooth, polished" and refers to the color pattern.
The name noctivaga (Latin) means "night wanderer" and refers to nocturnal habits.
The name occidentalis (Latin) means "western" and refers to its western distribution.
The name philipi is a patronym and honors Philip M. Klauber. 
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  • Banta, Benjamin H.;Leviton, Alan E. 1961. A record of Arizona elegans expolita from the State of Aguascalientes. Herpetologica 17 (1): 71 - get paper here
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