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Aspidoscelis exsanguis (LOWE, 1956)

IUCN Red List - Aspidoscelis exsanguis - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaTeiidae, Teiinae, Gymnophthalmoidea, Sauria, Squamata (lizards) 
Subspecies 
Common NamesChihuahuan Spotted Whiptail 
SynonymCnemidophorus sacki exsanguis LOWE 1956
Cnemidophorus costatus exsanguis — MASLIN 1962: 212 (part.)
Cnemidophorus exsanguis — STEBBINS 1985: 157
Cnemidophorus exsanguis — MASLIN & SECOY 1986
Cnemidophorus exsanguis — CONANT & COLLINS 1991: 120
Cnemidophorus exsanguis — LINER 1994
Aspidoscelis exsanguis — REEDER et al. 2002
Aspidoscelis exsanguis — COOPER et al. 2005
Aspidoscelis exsanguis — COLLINS & TAGGART 2009
Aspidoscelis neavesi COLE, TAYLOR, BAUMANN & BAUMANN 2014 (part) 
DistributionUSA (SE Arizona, New Mexico, SW Texas),
Mexico (N Chihuahua, NE Sonora); elevation 760-2440 m.

Type locality: “Socorro, Socorro County, New Mexico”.  
ReproductionThis species originated through hybridization involving 3 species: C. inornatus, C. septemvittatus, and C. costatus (fide STEBBINS 1985). Parthenogenetic species. Lutes et al. (2011) report the generation of four self-sustaining clonal lineages of a tetraploid species resulting from fertilization of triploid oocytes from a parthenogenetic Aspidoscelis exsanguis with haploid sperm from Aspidoscelis inornata.<br /><br />Aspidoscelis neavesi is a parthenogenetic, synthetic organism that originated through hybridization between Aspidoscelis exsanguis (triploid parthenogen) x Aspidoscelis inornata (diploid bisexual or gonochoristic species) in the laboratory. Given that it is a synthetic organism that did not evolve naturally, we do not list it as valid species for the time being, a decision supported by the scientific advisory board of the database. 
TypesHolotype: UAZ, University of Arizona, UAA 16188 (formerly Unlverslty of California, Los Angeles, Dept. of Zoology 3737), collected by Richard Zweifel and Kenneth S. norris, 10 Aug 1948.
Holotype. MCZ R-192219 (5 SIMR 8093), a cloned adult female of the F2 laboratory reared generation that also cloned herself at the SIMR. She hatched on August 13, 2008, and her mother was MCZ R-192209 (=SIMR 4919) [neavesi] 
CommentBefore LOWE described Cnemidophorus sacki exsanguis, specimens of it have been assigned to Cnemidophorus gularis, C. sexlineatus, or C. sackii.

Diagnosis (neavesi). A species of the Aspidoscelis sexlineata species group as reviewed by Lowe et al. (1970b). The species is distinguished from all others in the genus by the following combination of characters: abruptly enlarged mesoptychials; enlarged postantebrachials; 2 frontoparietals; usually 3 parietals; 4 supraoculars each side; unisexual (only females exist); body with 6 longitudinal pale stripes that fade and can disappear in large adults; hatchlings basically unspotted but adults with pale dots and spots on body; maximum snout-vent length (SVL) about 80 mm; tetraploid number of chromosomes about 91, with 4 haploid sets of the sexlineata species group, including the slightly modified triploid karyotype of some A. exsanguis from Alamogordo (Lutes et al., 2011), and the 3 largest chromosomes being metacentric. 
EtymologyThe name exsanguis (Latin, “without blood”), referes to the distinct difference between this species and C. burti stictogrammus, with which it was formerly inlcuded. 
References
  • Bartlett, R. D. & Bartlett, P. 1999. A Field Guide to Texas Reptiles and Amphibians. Gulf Publishing Co., Houston, Texas, 331 pp.
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  • Cole, Charles J.; Harry L. Taylor, and Carol R. Townsend 2015. Morphological Variation in a Unisexual Whiptail Lizard (Aspidoscelis exsanguis) and One of Its Bisexual Parental Species (Aspidoscelis inornata) (Reptilia: Squamata: Teiidae): Is the Clonal Species Less Variable? American Museum Novitates 3849: 1-20 [Feb 2016] - get paper here
  • Cole, Charles J.; Harry L. Taylor, Diana P. Baumann, and Peter Baumann 2014. Neaves' Whiptail Lizard: The First Known Tetraploid Parthenogenetic Tetrapod (Reptilia: Squamata: Teiidae). Breviora (539): 1-20 - get paper here
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