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Aspidoscelis exsanguis (LOWE, 1956)

IUCN Red List - Aspidoscelis exsanguis - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaTeiidae, Teiinae, Gymnophthalmoidea, Sauria, Squamata (lizards) 
Common NamesChihuahuan Spotted Whiptail 
SynonymCnemidophorus sacki exsanguis LOWE 1956
Cnemidophorus costatus exsanguis — MASLIN 1962: 212 (part.)
Cnemidophorus exsanguis — STEBBINS 1985: 157
Cnemidophorus exsanguis — MASLIN & SECOY 1986
Cnemidophorus exsanguis — CONANT & COLLINS 1991: 120
Cnemidophorus exsanguis — LINER 1994
Aspidoscelis exsanguis — REEDER et al. 2002
Aspidoscelis exsanguis — COOPER et al. 2005
Aspidoscelis exsanguis — COLLINS & TAGGART 2009
Aspidoscelis neavesi COLE, TAYLOR, BAUMANN & BAUMANN 2014 (part) 
DistributionUSA (SE Arizona, New Mexico, SW Texas),
Mexico (N Chihuahua, NE Sonora); elevation 760-2440 m.

Type locality: “Socorro, Socorro County, New Mexico”. Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
ReproductionThis species originated through hybridization involving 3 species: C. inornatus, C. septemvittatus, and C. costatus (fide STEBBINS 1985). Parthenogenetic species. Lutes et al. (2011) report the generation of four self-sustaining clonal lineages of a tetraploid species resulting from fertilization of triploid oocytes from a parthenogenetic Aspidoscelis exsanguis with haploid sperm from Aspidoscelis inornata.<br /><br />Aspidoscelis neavesi is a parthenogenetic, synthetic organism that originated through hybridization between Aspidoscelis exsanguis (triploid parthenogen) x Aspidoscelis inornata (diploid bisexual or gonochoristic species) in the laboratory. Given that it is a synthetic organism that did not evolve naturally, we do not list it as valid species for the time being, a decision supported by the scientific advisory board of the database. 
TypesHolotype: UAZ, University of Arizona, UAA 16188 (formerly Unlverslty of California, Los Angeles, Dept. of Zoology 3737), collected by Richard Zweifel and Kenneth S. norris, 10 Aug 1948.
Holotype. MCZ R-192219 (5 SIMR 8093), a cloned adult female of the F2 laboratory reared generation that also cloned herself at the SIMR. She hatched on August 13, 2008, and her mother was MCZ R-192209 (=SIMR 4919) [neavesi] 
CommentBefore LOWE described Cnemidophorus sacki exsanguis, specimens of it have been assigned to Cnemidophorus gularis, C. sexlineatus, or C. sackii.

Diagnosis (neavesi). A species of the Aspidoscelis sexlineata species group as reviewed by Lowe et al. (1970b). The species is distinguished from all others in the genus by the following combination of characters: abruptly enlarged mesoptychials; enlarged postantebrachials; 2 frontoparietals; usually 3 parietals; 4 supraoculars each side; unisexual (only females exist); body with 6 longitudinal pale stripes that fade and can disappear in large adults; hatchlings basically unspotted but adults with pale dots and spots on body; maximum snout-vent length (SVL) about 80 mm; tetraploid number of chromosomes about 91, with 4 haploid sets of the sexlineata species group, including the slightly modified triploid karyotype of some A. exsanguis from Alamogordo (Lutes et al., 2011), and the 3 largest chromosomes being metacentric. 
EtymologyThe name exsanguis (Latin, “without blood”), referes to the distinct difference between this species and C. burti stictogrammus, with which it was formerly inlcuded. 
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  • Bezy, Robert L. and Charles J. Cole 2014. Amphibians and Reptiles of the Madrean Archipelago of Arizona and New Mexico. American Museum Novitates (3810): 1-24 - get paper here
  • Cole, Charles J.; Harry L. Taylor, and Carol R. Townsend 2015. Morphological Variation in a Unisexual Whiptail Lizard (Aspidoscelis exsanguis) and One of Its Bisexual Parental Species (Aspidoscelis inornata) (Reptilia: Squamata: Teiidae): Is the Clonal Species Less Variable? American Museum Novitates 3849: 1-20 [Feb 2016] - get paper here
  • Cole, Charles J.; Harry L. Taylor, Diana P. Baumann, and Peter Baumann 2014. Neaves' Whiptail Lizard: The First Known Tetraploid Parthenogenetic Tetrapod (Reptilia: Squamata: Teiidae). Breviora (539): 1-20 - get paper here
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