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Aspidoscelis hyperythrus (COPE, 1864)

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Higher TaxaTeiidae, Teiinae, Gymnophthalmoidea, Sauria, Squamata (lizards) 
SubspeciesAspidoscelis hyperythrus beldingi (STEJNEGER 1894)
Aspidoscelis hyperythrus hyperythrus (COPE 1863)
Aspidoscelis hyperythrus schmidti (VAN DENBURGH & SLEVIN 1921) 
Common NamesE: beldingi: Belding’s Orange-throated Whiptail
G: Orangekehlige Rennechse 
SynonymCnemidophorus hyperythrus hyperythrus COPE 1864
Cnemidophorus hyperythrus COPE 1864: 103
Verticaria hyperythra — VAN DENBURGH 1895: 128
Cnemidophorus hyperythrus — GADOW 1906: 307
Verticaria hyperythra hyperythra — VAN DENBURGH 1922: 556
Cnemidophorus hyperythrus hyperythrus — BURT 1929: 154 (part.)
Verticaria espiritensis VAN DENBURGH & SLEVIN 1921: 397
Verticaria franciscensis VAN DENBURGH & SLEVIN 1921
Cnemidophorus hyperythrus hyperythrus — SMITH & TAYLOR 1950: 187
Cnemidophorus hyperythrus hyperythrus — STEBBINS 1985: 152
Cnemidophorus espiritensis — GRISMER 1999
Cnemidophorus franciscensis — GRISMER 1999
Aspidoscelis hyperythra — REEDER et al. 2002
Aspidoscelis espiritensis — REEDER et al. 2002
Aspidoscelis franciscensis — REEDER et al. 2002
Aspidoscelis hyperythra — COLLINS & TAGGART 2009
Aspidoscelis hyperythrus — PYRON & BURBRINK 2013

Aspidoscelis hyperythrus beldingi (STEJNEGER 1894)
Verticaria beldingi STEJNEGER 1894
Verticaria hyperythra beldingi — VAN DENBURGH 1895: 131
Verticaria hyperythra beldingi — VAN DENBURGH 1922: 560
Cnemidophorus hyperythrus beldingi — GRINNELL & CAMP 1917
Cnemidophorus hyperythrus beldingi — SMITH & TAYLOR 1950: 186
Cnemidophorus hyperythrus beldingi — STEBBINS 1985: 153
Cnemidophorus hyperythrus beldingi — MASLIN & SECOY 1986
Aspidoscelis hyperythra beldingi — REEDER et al. 2002
Aspidoscelis hyperythra beldingi — CROTHER et al. 2012: 34

Aspidoscelis hyperythrus schmidti (VAN DENBURGH & SLEVIN 1921)
Verticaria hyperythra schmidti VAN DENBURGH & SLEVIN 1921: 397
Cnemidophorus hyperythrus schmidti — LINSDALE 1932: 373
Cnemidophorus hyperythrus schmidti — SMITH & TAYLOR 1950: 187
Cnemidophorus hyperythrus schmidti — MASLIN & SECOY 1986 
DistributionUSA (S California, New Mexico),
Mexico (Baja California, Chihuahua)

beldingi: SW California southward on Pacific slopes (not Gulf) to Cedros Island. Type locality: “Cerros” Island, Baja California.

hyperythrus: Southern third of the peninsula of Baja California and adjacent islands on both the Gulf and Pacific sides. Type locality: Cape San Lucas, Baja California.

schmidti: The central fifth of the peninsula of Baja California and adjacent islands. Type locality: San Marcos Island, Gulf of California, Baja California. Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
TypesHolotype: USNM 11980 (beldingi; collected by L. Belding)
Holotype: CAS 50512 (schmidti) 
CommentSubspecies, synonymy and distribution after SMITH & TAYLOR 1950 and more subspecies after LINER 1994. GRISMER (1999) elevated a number of species to full species status, including espiritensis, franciscensis. All belong to the Aspidoscelis deppii group (fide REEDER et al. 2002).

Aspidoscelis hyperythra displays a significant morphological shift between southern and northern populations at the Isthmus of La Paz. However, there are no fixed character states, such as number of pale dorsal stripes, diagnostic of southern and northern populations. The co-occurrence in local populations of variable numbers of individuals with five, six, or seven stripes makes peninsular A. hyperythra an unusual member of the A. deppii species-group, where number of stripes is consistent in local populations (Taylor & Walker 2014). 
  • Brattstrom, B. H. 2000. The range, habitat requirements, and abundance of the orange-throated Whiptail, Cnemidophorus hyperythrus beldingi. Bull. Southern California Acad. Asci. 99 (1): 1-24
  • Burt, C. E. 1931. A study of the teiid lizards of the genus Cnemidophorus with special reference to their phylogenetic relationships. Bull. US Natl. Mus. 154: 286 pp. - get paper here
  • Collins, J.T. and <br />T. W. Taggart 2009. Standard Common and Current Scientific Names for North American Amphibians, Turtles, Reptiles, and Crocodilians, Sixth Edition. Center for North American Herpetology, 48 pp.
  • Cope, E.D. 1864. Descriptions of new American Squamata in the Museum of the Smtihsonian Institution. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 15 [1863]: 100-106 - get paper here
  • Crother, B. I. (ed.) 2012. Standard Common and Current Scientific Names for North American Amphibians, Turtles, Reptiles, and Crocodilians, Seventh Edition. Herpetological Circular 39: 1-92
  • Dickerson, M. C. 1919. Diagnoses of twenty-three new species and a new genus of lizards from Lower California. Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 41 (10): 461-477
  • Gadow,H. 1906. A contribution to the study of evolution based upon the Mexican species of Cnemidophorus. Proc. Zool. Soc. London 1906: 277-375 (+ maps) - get paper here
  • Grinnell, J. & CAMP, C.L. 1917. A distributional list of the amphibians and reptiles of California. Univ. California Publ. Zool. 17: 127-208
  • Grismer, L. Lee 1999. Phylogeny, taxonomy, and biogeography of Cnemidophorus hyperythrus and C. ceralbensis (Squamata: Teiidae) in Baja California, México. Herpetologica 55 (1): 28-42 - get paper here
  • Jones, L.L. & Lovich, R.E. 2009. Lizards of the American Southwest. A photographic field guide. Rio Nuevo Publishers, Tucson, AZ, 568 pp. [review in Reptilia 86: 84] - get paper here
  • Leviton, Alan E.; Banta, Benjamin H. 1964. Midwinter reconnaissance of the herpetofauna of the Cape Region of Baja California, Mexico. Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. 30 (7): 127-156 - get paper here
  • Linsdale 1932. Amphibians and reptiles from lower California. Univ. California Publ. Zool. 38 (6): 345-386
  • Maslin, T. & Secoy, D.M. 1986. A checklist of the lizard genus Cnemidophorus (Teiidae). Contr. Zool. Univ. Colorado Mus. 1: 1-60
  • Mocquard, M.F. 1899. Contribution a la faune herpétologique de la Basse-Californie. Nouv. Arch. Mus. Hist. Natur.Paris, 4th Series, Vol. 1: 297-343 + plates XI-XIII - get paper here
  • Pyron, R. Alexander; Frank T. Burbrink 2013. Early origin of viviparity and multiple reversions to oviparity in squamate reptiles. Ecology Letters 17 (1): 13–21 (published online 2013, in print 2014), DOI: 10.1111/ele.12168 - get paper here
  • REEDER, T.W.; CHARLES J. COLE AND HERBERT C. DESSAUER 2002. Phylogenetic Relationships of Whiptail Lizards of the Genus Cnemidophorus (Squamata: Teiidae): A Test of Monophyly, Reevaluation of Karyotypic Evolution, and Review of Hybrid Origins. American Museum Novitates 3365: 1-64 - get paper here
  • Rochester, Carlton J.; Cheryl S. Brehme, Denise R. Clark, Drew C. Stokes, Stacie A. Hathaway, and Robert N. Fisher 2010. Reptile and Amphibian Responses to Large-Scale Wildfires in Southern California. Journal of Herpetology 44 (3): 333–351 - get paper here
  • Romero-Schmidt, Heidi L. and Alfredo Ortega-Rubio. 2000. Reproduction of the Cape Orange-throat Whiptail, Cnemidophorus hyperythrus hyperythrus. Herpetological Natural History 7(1):1-7
  • Scott, P.A. 2013. Phylogeography and Species Limits of the Aspidoscelis hyperythra Complex of Baja California, Mexico MS thesis, San Diego State University - get paper here
  • Stebbins,R.C. 1985. A Field Guide to Western Reptiles and Amphibians, 2nd ed. Houghton Mifflin, Boston
  • Stejneger,L. 1894. Description of a new lizard (Verticaria beldingi), from California. Proc. US Natl. Mus. 17: 17-18 - get paper here
  • Taylor, Harry L. and James M. Walker 2014. Pan-Peninsular pattern of morphological variation in Aspidoscelis hyperythra (Squamata: Teiidae), Baja California, Mexico. Southwestern Naturalist Jun 2014, Vol. 59, No. 2: 221-227. - get paper here
  • Taylor, Harry L. and James M. Walker 2014. Pattern of Differential Divergence Among Five Insular Species of the Aspidoscelis hyperythra Complex (Squamata: Teiidae), Baja California Sur, México Journal of Herpetology Sep 2014, Vol. 48, No. 3: 355-362 - get paper here
  • Tevis, lloyd, Jr. 1944. Herpetological notes from lower California. Copeia 1944 (1): 6-18 - get paper here
  • Thompson, J. S., Brian I. Crother and Andrew H. Price. 1998. Cnemidophorus hyperythrus. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles 655: 1-6. - get paper here
  • Van Denburgh, J.; Slevin, J. R. 1921. Preliminary diagnoses of new species of the peninsula of Lower California, with notes on the species in the collection of the Academy. Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. (4) 11: 95-98 - get paper here
  • Van Denburgh, J.; Slevin, J. R. 1921. Preliminary diagnoses of more new species of reptiles from islands in the gulf of California, Mexico. Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. (4) 11 (17): 395-398 - get paper here
  • Van Denburgh, John 1922. The Reptiles of Western North America. Volume I. Lizards and Volume II. Snakes and Turtles. Occ. Pap. Cal. Acad. Sci. (10): 1–612; 613-1028 - get paper here
  • Van Denburgh,J. 1895. A review of the herpetology of Lower California. Part I - Reptiles. Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. (2) 5: 77-163 - get paper here
  • Walker, J. Martin;Taylor, Harry L. 1968. Geographical variation in the teiid lizard Cnemidophorus hyperythrus. I. The caeruleus-like subspecies. American Midland Naturalist 80 (1): 1-27 - get paper here
  • Zweifel, Richard G. 1958. Results of the Puritan-American Museum of Natural History Expedition to western Mexico 2. Notes on reptiles and amphibians from the Pacific Coastal Islands of Baja California. American Museum Novitates (1895): 1-17 - get paper here
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