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Atractus alphonsehogei DA CUNHA & DO NASCIMENTO, 1983

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Higher TaxaColubridae (Dipsadinae), Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Common NamesE: Alphonse's Ground Snake 
SynonymAtractus alphonsehogei DA CUNHA & DO NASCIMENTO 1983
Atractus alphonsehogei — PASSOS et al. 2007
Atractus alphonsehogei — WALLACH et al. 2014: 68
Atractus alphonsehogei — NOGUEIRA et al. 2019 
DistributionBrazil (Amazonas, Maranhão, Pará)

Type locality: Bela Vista, 75 km da PA-242, rodovia Braganca-Viseu.  
TypesHolotype: MPEG 14.928, adult male, collected by O. Cunha and F. Nascimento on August 01 1978 at Bela Vista, Km 75 of the PA-242 road near municipality Nova Timboetuba (ca., 01°12’47’’S, 47°23’18’’W; 30 m asl), state of Pará, Brazil (Fig. 8 in Passos et al. 2018). Paratypes (18): MPEG, see list in Passos et al. 2018. 
DiagnosisDiagnosis. Atractus alphonsehogei is distinguished from all congeners, except for those species of the A. collaris species group by having one (usually) or two (rarely) apical pits on dorsal scales of both sexes and supracloacal tubercles in the cloacal region of mature males (Passos et al. 2013b). Additionally, the following unique combination of morphological characters is unique from the species and also distinguishes it from any species of Atractus: (1) dorsal scale rows 17/17/17 with apical pits and supracloacal tubercles in males; (2) postoculars two; (3) moderately long loreal, contacting first three supralabials; (4) temporals 1+2; (5) seven supralabials, third and fourth contacting eye; (6) seven infralabials, first three contacting chinshields; (7) six maxillary teeth; (8) gular scale rows in four series; (9) preventrals usually four; (10) ventrals 163–176 in females, 150–162 in males; (11) subcaudals 17–21 in females, 23–26 in males; (12) in preservative, dorsum brown to grayish black, with cream occipital collar incomplete, first dorsal scale rows with lighter center limited dorsally by dark brown lateral lines on the second and third scale rows, and two barely conspicuous brown dorsolateral lines on the sixth to seventh scale rows on each side of body; (13) in preservative, venter cream except for two lines (one from each side of belly) on the lateral margins of ventral scales (paraventral region); (14) small body size, females reaching 284 mm SVL, males 218 mm; (15) moderate tail length in females (8.0–11.4% SVL) and males (12.3– 13.1% SVL); (16) hemipenis moderately bilobed, non-capitate, and non-calyculate (Passos et al. 2018).

Comparisons. Atractus alphonsehogei differs from all members of the A. collaris species group, except A. collaris and A. gaigeae, by having first supralabial contacting loreal (vs. first supralabial not contacting loreal in A. caxiuana, A. hoogmoedi, A. surucucu, and A. zidoki). Atractus alphonsehogei differs from A. collaris in having calcified alary spines and hemipenial lobes centrifugally oriented, dorsum uniformly dark brown or black lacking spots, and cream supralabials (vs. alary spines lacking calcification and lobes centrolinearly oriented, dorsum with conspicuous spots, and yellow supralabials); from A. gaigeae in having 163–176 ventrals in females, 150–162 in males, six maxillary teeth, and lacking the vertebral line (vs. 200–214 ventrals in females, 184–198 in males; usually five maxillary teeth, and conspicuous vertebral line) (Passos et al. 2018). 
CommentOnly known from the type locality. 
EtymologyNamed after Dr. Alphonse Richard Hoge (1912-1982), a Brazilian-born Belgian herpetologist. Soon after his birth, the family returned to Belgium (1913). However, he returned to Brazil and joined Instituto Butantan, São Paulo, Brazil (1946), and was Director of the Biology Departtnent (1969-1982). 
  • Beolens, Bo; Michael Watkins, and Michael Grayson 2011. The Eponym Dictionary of Reptiles. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, USA - get paper here
  • Cunha, O R da; do Nascimento F P 1983. Ofidios da Amazonia. 20 - As especies de Atractus Wagler, 1828, na Amazonia oriental & Maranhao (Ophidia, Colubridae). Boletim do Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi NOVA SERIE ZOOLOGIA (No. 123): 1-38 - get paper here
  • Martins M. & Oliveira M E. 1993. The snakes of the genus Atractus Wagler (Reptilia: Squamata: Colubridae) from the Manaus region, central Amazonia, Brazil. Zoologische Mededelingen 67 (1-26): 21-40. - get paper here
  • Nogueira, Cristiano C.; Antonio J.S. Argôlo, Vanesa Arzamendia, Josué A. Azevedo, Fausto E. Barbo, Renato S. Bérnils, Bruna E. Bolochio, Marcio Borges-Martins, Marcela Brasil-Godinho, Henrique Braz, Marcus A. Buononato, Diego F. Cisneros-Heredia, 2019. Atlas of Brazilian snakes: verified point-locality maps to mitigate the Wallacean shortfall in a megadiverse snake fauna. South American J. Herp. 14 (Special Issue 1):1-274 - get paper here
  • Passos, P. & Fernandes, R. 2008. A new species of the colubrid snake genus Atractus (Reptilia: Serpentes) from the central Amazon of Brazil. Zootaxa 1849: 59–66 - get paper here
  • Passos, P., R. Fernandes and Borges-Nojosa, D.M. 2007. A New Species of Atractus (Serpentes: Dipsadinae) from a Relictual Forest in Northeastern Brazil. Copeia 2007 (4): 788–797 - get paper here
  • PASSOS, PAULO; ANA L. C. PRUDENTE, LUCIANA O. RAMOS, JOSÉ RANCES CAICEDO-PORTILLA, JOHN D. LYNCH 2018. Species delimitations in the Atractus collaris complex (Serpentes: Dipsadidae). Zootaxa 4392 (3): 491–520 - get paper here
  • Passos, Paulo; Philippe J. R. Kok, Nelson R. de Albuquerque, and Gilson A. Rivas 2013. Groundsnakes of the Lost World: A Review of Atractus (Serpentes: Dipsadidae) from the Pantepui Region, Northern South America. Herpetological Monographs 27 (1): 52-86 - get paper here
  • Prudente, Ana L.C and Paulo Passos 2008. New Species of Atractus Wagler, 1828 (Serpentes: Dipsadinae) from Guyana Plateau in Northern Brazil. Journal of Herpetology 42 (4): 723 - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
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