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Atractus altagratiae PASSOS & FERNANDES, 2008

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Higher TaxaColubridae (Dipsadinae), Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Common Names 
SynonymAtractus altagratiae PASSOS & FERNANDES 2008
Atractus altagratiae — WALLACH et al. 2014: 68
Atractus altagratiae — NOGUEIRA et al. 2019 
DistributionN Brazil (C Amazon)

Type locality: upper Cururú River (07°12’S, 58°04’W; ca. 44 m elevation), tributary of Teles Pires River, Municipality of Itaituba, State of Pará, Brazil.  
Reproductionoviparous (not imputed, fide Zimin et al. 2022) 
TypesHolotype: MNRJ 7888, adult male, Museu Nacional, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, collected 1957 by Helmut Sick. 
DiagnosisDiagnosis: The single known male of Atractus altagratiae is distinguished from all congeners by the following combination of characters: (1) 17/17/17 dorsal scale rows, smooth, without apical pits, supranal tubercles, or keels; (2) two postoculars; (3) long loreal; (4) temporals 1+2; (5) seven supralabials, third and fourth contacting orbit; (6) seven infralabials, first four in contact with chinshields; (7) seven maxillary teeth; (8) three gular scale rows; (9) three preventrals; (10) 139 ventrals; (11) 27 subcaudals; (12) dorsal colour pattern uniform reddish brown, except the first two dorsal rows creamish white; (13) venter immaculate creamish white; (14) snout-vent length of 240 mm; (15) moderate tail size (14.6% of SVL); (16) slightly bilobed, barely semicapitate, and semicalyculate hemipenis. Differs from all congeners except A. dunni, A. lasallei, A. lhemanni, and A. resplesdens in having 17 dorsal scale rows, seven supralabials, two postoculars, and dorsal colour pattern uniform reddish brown. Atractus altagratiae differs from these species in having the first two dorsal scale rows uniform creamish white, venter immaculate creamish white, and hemipenis slightly bilobed with lateral tip projections (vs. first dorsal scale rows reddish brown, venter deeply dark pigmented, and hemipenis moderate bilobed, lacking lateral projections). 
CommentOn the basis of hemipenial morphology Atractus altagratiae appears to be a close relative of A. insipidus, A. pantostictus, A. punctiventris, and A. ronnie. These species share a slightly bilobed, barely semicapitate, and semicalyculate hemipenis, most of them having intrasulcular alary spines, a basal depression, and lateral projection on the lobes (Passos, 2008). 
EtymologyThe specific epithet “altagratiae” honours Altagratia Chiesse for her extensive help rendering many Atractus illustrations and supporting the senior author during his doctorate studies. 
  • Nogueira, Cristiano C.; Antonio J.S. Argôlo, Vanesa Arzamendia, Josué A. Azevedo, Fausto E. Barbo, Renato S. Bérnils, Bruna E. Bolochio, Marcio Borges-Martins, Marcela Brasil-Godinho, Henrique Braz, Marcus A. Buononato, Diego F. Cisneros-Heredia, 2019. Atlas of Brazilian snakes: verified point-locality maps to mitigate the Wallacean shortfall in a megadiverse snake fauna. South American J. Herp. 14 (Special Issue 1):1-274 - get paper here
  • Passos, P. 2008. Revisão taxonômica do gênero Atractus Wagler, 1828 (Serpentes: Colubridae: Dipsadinae). PhD Thesis, Museu Nacional, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 671 pp.
  • Passos, P. & Fernandes, R. 2008. A new species of the colubrid snake genus Atractus (Reptilia: Serpentes) from the central Amazon of Brazil. Zootaxa 1849: 59–66 - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
  • Zimin, A., Zimin, S. V., Shine, R., Avila, L., Bauer, A., Böhm, M., Brown, R., Barki, G., de Oliveira Caetano, G. H., Castro Herrera, F., Chapple, D. G., Chirio, L., Colli, G. R., Doan, T. M., Glaw, F., Grismer, L. L., Itescu, Y., Kraus, F., LeBreton 2022. A global analysis of viviparity in squamates highlights its prevalence in cold climates. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 00, 1–16 - get paper here
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