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Atractus badius (BOIE, 1827)

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Higher TaxaColubridae (Dipsadinae), Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Common NamesBoie's Ground Snake (micheli: French Guyana Ground Snake)
Portuguese: Cobra-da-Terra, Fura-Terra 
SynonymBrachyorrhos badius BOIE 1827: 540
Calamaria badia — SCHLEGEL 1837: 35 (part.)
Rhabdosoma badium — DUMÉRIL, BIBRON & DUMÉRIL 1854: 95
Rhabdosoma badium subbicinctum JAN 1862: 14
Rabdosoma badium — JAN 1865
Rabdosoma dubium — JAN 1865
Atractus badius — BOULENGER 1894: 308
Atractus micheli MOCQUARD 1904: 301
Atractus badius — SCHMIDT & WALKER 1943
Atractus subbicinctus — SAVAGE 1960: 83
Atractus subcinctum — PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970
Atractus badius — PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970: 27
Atractus subbicinctus — GASC & RODRIGUES 1980
Atractus badius — CEI 1993
Atractus badius — STARACE 1998: 128
Atractus micheli — CLAESSEN 2003
Atractus badius — WALLACH et al. 2014: 69
Atractus badius — NOGUEIRA et al. 2019 
DistributionColombia, Suriname, French Guiana,
Peru (Tambopata, Madre de Dios: [HR 31: 188]), Brazil (Amapá)

subbicinctus: Surinam, French Guiana; Type locality: Surinam and French Guiana

Type locality: in error (see comment); Surinam (fide STARACE 1998).

Type locality: French Guiana [micheli]  
TypesLectotype: RMNH 120c, a 302 mm female, designated by Hoogmoed, 1980: 11. 
CommentSynonymy partly that of CEI 1993. Synonymy: Duméril et al. (1854) synonymized B. flammigerus and B. schach with B. badius until Hoogmoed (1980) rediscovered the types of Atractus badius, A. flammigerus and A. schach, resurrecting the latter two from the synonymy with A. badius. Not listed by GASC & RODRIGUES 1980. A micheli has been synonymized with A. badius by HOOGMOED 1980 and CHIPPAUX 1986.

Similar species: A. major, A. snethlageae, A. schach. Records of A. badius for southeastern Venezuela represent misidentifications of A. lancini, A. univittatus, and A. meridensis (SCHARGEL et al. 2013).

Distribution: Terra typica originally given as Java (in error). According to Hoogmoed (1980) this taxon probably includes several distinct species and A. badius has a limited distribution in the Guiana Shield. It is likely that the specimens cited as A. badius from Venezuela are in fact A. univittatus or A. lancinii, at least those from the Coastal Range records (W. Schargel and P. Passos, pers. comm., cited in RIVAS et al. 2012). This species was erroneously recorded from the Coastal Range and the Cordillera de Mérida (Roze 1966; Lancini 1979). Specimens reported from N Argentina (Chaco) are A. snethlagae (GIRAUDO 2004:21). Brazil: Cunha & Nascimento (1978) mentioned only Atractus badius from eastern Para, but the picture they published clearly shows A. flammigerus (fide HOOGMOED & PRUDENTE 2003). Not in Ecuador fide Arteaga et al. 2017. Not verified for Guyana (Cole et al. 2013: 321). See map in Nogueira et al. 2019. 
  • Almendariz, A. 1991. Anfibios y Reptiles [del Ecuador]. Rev. Politecnica. XVI (3): 89-162.
  • Arteaga A, Mebert K, Valencia JH, Cisneros-Heredia DF, Peñafiel N, Reyes-Puig C, Vieira-Fernandes JL, Guayasamin JM 2017. Molecular phylogeny of Atractus (Serpentes, Dipsadidae), with emphasis on Ecuadorian species and the description of three new taxa. ZooKeys 661: 91-123. - get paper here
  • Boie, F. 1827. Bemerkungen über Merrem's Versuch eines Systems der Amphibien, 1. Lieferung: Ophidier. Isis von Oken 20: 508-566. - get paper here
  • Boulenger, George A. 1894. Catalogue of the snakes in the British Museum (Natural History). Volume II., Containing the Conclusion of the Colubridæ Aglyphæ. British Mus. (Nat. Hist.), London, xi, 382 pp. - get paper here
  • Cei, J. M. 1993. Reptiles del noroeste, nordeste y este de la Argentina. Museo Regionale Sci. Naturale Torino, Monografie 14: 1-949
  • Chippeaux, J.P. 1986. Les serpents de la Guyane française. Coll. Faune Tropicale 27: 1-165 (Editions de l'ORSTOM, Paris)
  • Claessen, H. 2003. De slangen can de Guyana’s. Deel iv. Lacerta 61 (1): 19-27 - get paper here
  • Cunha, O.R. da and Nascimento,F.P. 1978. Ofidios da Amazonia. X. - As cobras da região leste do Pará. Publ. Avuls. Mus. Par. Emélio Goeldi 31: 1-218 - get paper here
  • Gasc & Rodrigues 1980. Liste preliminaire des Serpents de la Guyane francaise. Bull. Mus. Nat. Hist. Nat. Paris 2 (4): 559-598
  • Giraudo, A. R. 2004. Serpientes de la Selva Paranaense y del Chaco. Húmedo -L.O.L.A. 17 - Colin Sharp, Buenos Aires.
  • Gonzalez R. C. et al. 2020. Lista dos Nomes Populares dos Répteis no Brasil – Primeira Versão. Herpetologia Brasileira 9 (2): 121 – 214 - get paper here
  • Hoogmoed M.S.; de Avila-Pires T C S 1991. Annotoated checklist of the herpetofauna of Petit Saut, Sinnamary River, French Guiana. Zoologische Mededelingen 65: 53-88 - get paper here
  • Hoogmoed, M. S. 1980. Revision of the genus Atractus in Surinam, with the ressurection of two species (Colubridae, Reptilia). Notes on the Herpetofauna of Surinam VII. Zoologische Verhandelingen (175): 1-47 - get paper here
  • Jan, G. 1862. Enumerazione sistematico delle specie d'ofidi del gruppo Calamaridae. Arch. Zool., Anat. Fisiol., 2: 1-76. - get paper here
  • Jan, G. 1865. Iconographie générale des ophidiens. 11. Livraison. J.B. Bailière et Fils, Paris - get paper here
  • Jan, G. 1865. Iconographie générale des ophidiens. 10. Livraison. J.B. Bailière et Fils, Paris - get paper here
  • Lancini,A.R. & Kornacker,P.M. 1989. Die Schlangen von Venezuela. Armitano Editores C.A., Caracas, 1-381
  • Melo-Sampaio, Paulo Roberto; Paulo Passos, Antoine Fouquet, Ana Lucia Da Costa Prudente & Omar Torres-Carvajal 2019. Systematic review of Atractus schach (Serpentes: Dipsadidae) species complex from the Guiana Shield with description of three new species. Systematics and Biodiversity, 17:3, 207-229, DOI: 10.1080/14772000.2019.1611674 - get paper here
  • Melo‐Sampaio, PR, Passos, P, Prudente, ALC, Venegas, PJ, Torres‐Carvajal, O. 2021. Systematic review of the polychromatic ground snakes Atractus snethlageae complex reveals four new species from threatened environments. J Zool Syst Evol Res. 2021; 59: 718– 747 - get paper here
  • Mocquard,M.F. 1904. Description de quelques reptiles et d'un batracien nouveaux de la collection du Muséum. Bull. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat. Paris 10 (26): 301-309 - get paper here
  • Nogueira, Cristiano C.; Antonio J.S. Argôlo, Vanesa Arzamendia, Josué A. Azevedo, Fausto E. Barbo, Renato S. Bérnils, Bruna E. Bolochio, Marcio Borges-Martins, Marcela Brasil-Godinho, Henrique Braz, Marcus A. Buononato, Diego F. Cisneros-Heredia, 2019. Atlas of Brazilian snakes: verified point-locality maps to mitigate the Wallacean shortfall in a megadiverse snake fauna. South American J. Herp. 14 (Special Issue 1):1-274 - get paper here
  • Páez, V.P. et al. 2002. Guía de campo de algunas especies de anfibios y reptiles de Antioquia. Universidad de Antioquia, - get paper here
  • PASSOS P, MELO-SAMPAIO PR, RAMOS LO, GRAZZIOTIN FG, FOUQUET A & TORRES-CARVAJAL O. 2022. When the tail shakes the snake: phylogenetic affinities and morphology of Atractus badius (Serpentes: Dipsadidae), reveals some current pitfalls on the snake’s genomic age. An Acad Bras Cienc 94: e20191254 - get paper here
  • Passos, Paulo; Philippe J. R. Kok, Nelson R. de Albuquerque, and Gilson A. Rivas 2013. Groundsnakes of the Lost World: A Review of Atractus (Serpentes: Dipsadidae) from the Pantepui Region, Northern South America. Herpetological Monographs 27 (1): 52-86 - get paper here
  • Pérez-Santos,C. & Moreno, A.G. 1988. Ofidios de Colombia. Museo reegionale di Scienze Naturali, Torino, Monographie VI, 517 pp.
  • Savage,J.M. 1960. A revision of the Ecuadorian snakes of the colubrid genus Atractus. Misc. Publ. Zool. Univ. Michigan 112: 1-86 - get paper here
  • SCHARGEL, WALTER E.; WILLIAM W. LAMAR, PAULO PASSOS, JORGE H. VALENCIA, DIEGO F. CISNEROS-HEREDIA, JONATHAN A. CAMPBELL 2013. A new giant Atractus (Serpentes: Dipsadidae) from Ecuador, with notes on some other large Amazonian congeners. Zootaxa 3721 (5): 455–474 - get paper here
  • Schlegel, H. 1837. Essai sur la physionomie des serpens. Partie Descriptive. La Haye (J. Kips, J. HZ. et W. P. van Stockum), 606 S. + xvi - get paper here
  • Schmidt, K. E, & INGER, R. F. 1951. Amphibians and reptiles of the Hopkins-Branner expedition to Brazil. Fieldiana: Zoology 31: 439-465 - get paper here
  • Schmidt, Karl P. & Walker, Warren F. 1943. Peruvian snakes from the University of Arequipa. Zoological Series of Field Museum of Zoology 24 (26): 279-296 - get paper here
  • Starace, Fausto 1998. Guide des Serpents et Amphisbènes de Guyane. IBIS Rouge Editions, Guadeloupe, Guyane, 450 pp.
  • Starace, Fausto 2013. Guide des Serpents et Amphisbènes de Guyane. Ibis Rouge Editions, Matoury, Guyane, ISBN 978-2-84450-407-4 - get paper here
  • Ukuwela, K.D.B., de Silva, A., Sivaruban, A. et al. 2022. Diversity, distribution, and natural history of the marine snakes of Sri Lanka. Marine Biodiversity 52, 24 (2022) - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
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