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Atractus boimirim PASSOS, PRUDENTE & LYNCH, 2016

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Higher TaxaColubridae (Dipsadinae), Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Common Names 
SynonymAtractus boimirim PASSOS, PRUDENTE & LYNCH 2016
Atractus cf. insipidus — SILVA 1993: 52
Atractus insipidus — SILVA et al. 2005: 39
Atractus boimirim — NOGUEIRA et al. 2019 
DistributionBrazil (Rondônia)

Type locality: Jamari River (see Silva 1993 for more details about the type locality), Vila Cachoeira de Samuel (08°45’S, 63°27’W, ca. 100 m elevation), municipality of Porto Velho, state of Rondônia, Brazil (Passos et al. 2016: Fig. 5).  
TypesHolotype: MPEG 17908, Adult male, collected between 14 November 1988 and 29 March 1989 by N. Jorge da Silva Jr. and team in the faunal rescue operation for the construction of the Samuel Hydroelectric Power Plant. The holotype and ten additional paratypes were previously catalogued in the CEPB collection but, unfortunately, the association of each specimen with the old numbers was lost.
Paratypes. Sixteen specimens, all from Brazil: 10 (6 females and 4 males), with same data as the holotype (MPEG 17909–11, 17916–17, MPEG 17922, and MPEG 17967–70); female (MPEG 23965) collected on 25 March 2009 at surroundings of Jaci-Parana ́ River, tributary of Madeira River, during the faunal rescue for the implantation of the Jirau Hydroelectric Power Plant (098150S, 648380W, ca. 60 m asl), municipality of Porto Velho, Rondoˆnia; female (MPEG 25259) and male (MPEG 25260) collected by J. Frota between January and March 2010 and (MPEG 21233) collected by M. Hoogmoed on 5 February 2005 at Sapopema base camp (048400S, 568320W, ca. 145 m asl), Parque Nacional da Amazoˆnia, municipality of Itaituba, state of Amazonas; female (MNRJ 24864, formerly MPEG 22638), collected by T. Avila-Pires on 27 January 2008 at Capiranga base camp (028280S, 568090W, ca. 30 m asl), municipality of Juruti, state of Para ́. 
DiagnosisDiagnosis. Atractus boimirim can be distinguished from all congeners by the following combination of characters: (1) smooth dorsal scale rows 15/15/15; (2) postoculars two; (3) loreal moderately long; (4) temporal formula usually 1þ2; (5) supralabials seven, third and fourth contacting eye; (6) infralabials seven, usually first four contacting chinshields; (7) maxillary teeth seven; (8) gular scale rows three; (9) preventrals usually two; (10) ventrals 150–162 in females, 143–154 in males; (11) subcaudals 18– 23 in females, 23–28 in males; (12) in preservative, dorsum pale brown with a series of alternating black spots usually completely separated by a conspicuous black vertebral stripe sometimes interrupted on the posterior region of body; (13) venter uniformly creamish white or scattered with brown dots concentrated on lateral portions of ventral scales; (14) maximum body size moderate in females (390 mm SVL), small in males (270 mm SVL); (15) tail size small in females (8.3–9.9% SVL), moderately long (12.2–13.7% SVL) in males; (16) hemipenis moderately bilobed, noncapitate, and slightly calyculate.

Comparisons. Among all congeners, A. boimirim shares only with A. schach, A. major, and A. punctiventris a pale brown to beige dorsum with white-bordered black marks on the paravertebral region, seven upper and lower labials, and five to seven maxillary teeth. Atractus boimirim differs from A. major and A. schach by having 15 dorsal scale rows, alternating spots restricted to one flank side, usually separated from those on the opposite side by a conspicuous vertebral line, and venter uniformly cream or with a few brown dots on lateral margins of ventral scales (vs. 17 scale rows, wide transverse blotches crossing vertebral region and venter creamish white, usually with median longitudinal line formed by the arrangement of centered, round, dark brown spots or scattered with brown spots or blotches in both species); from A. punctiventris by having seven maxillary teeth (vs. five or six), usually four gular scale rows (vs. three), 150–161 ventrals in females and 143–147 in males (vs. 170– 183 in females and 155–162 in males), 18–23 subcaudals in females and 23–28 in males (vs. 27–34 in females and 32–33 in males), dorsum of body anteriorly with a conspicuous black vertebral stripe separating alternated spots (vs. dorsal blotches crossing vertebral region and lacking such stripe), and belly generally immaculate creamish white or covered with a few disperse dots (vs. belly creamish white usually with a conspicuous midventral stripe formed by linear arrangement of central dots).
With respect to the other cis-Andean species of Atractus from South American provinces of Morrone (2014), A. boimirim differs from Atractus alphonsehogei Cunha and Nascimento 1983, Atractus altagratiae Passos and Fernandes 2008, A. badius (Boie 1827), Atractus caxiuana Prudente and Santos-Costa 2006, Atractus collaris Peracca 1897, Atractus favae (Filippi 1840), Atractus flammigerus (Boie 1827), Atractus fuliginosus (Hallowell 1845), Atractus hoogmoedi Prudente and Passos 2010, Atractus latifrons (Gu ̈nther 1868), Atractus limitaneus Amaral 1935, A. major, Atractus natans Hoogmoed and Prudente 2003, Atractus snethlageae Cunha and Nascimento 1983, Atractus torquatus (Dume ́ril, Bibron, and Dume ́ril 1854), A. univittatus (Jan 1862), and Atractus zidoki Gasc and Rodrigues 1979 by having 15 dorsal scales rows (vs. 17). The new species shares 15 dorsal scale rows with the following congeners from aforementioned region: Atractus albuquerquei Cunha and Nascimento 1983, Atractus avernus Passos, Chiesse, Torres-Carvajal and Savage 2010, Atractus boettgeri Boulenger 1896, Atractus charitoae Silva 2004, Atractus edioi Silva, Silva, Ribeiro, Souza and Souza 2005, A. elaps, Atractus emmeli Boettger 1888, Atractus franciscopaivai Silva 2004, Atractus helio- belluomini Silva 2004, Atractus occipitoalbus (Jan 1862), Atractus orcesi Savage 1955, Atractus paravertebralis Henle and Ehrl 1991, Atractus poeppigi (Jan 1862), Atractus taeniatus Griffin 1916, and Atractus trilineatus Wagler 1828. Atractus boimirim differs from all of them by having a brown dorsum with alternating black spots frequently separated from those on the opposite side by a vertebral black stripe and a conspicuous descending postocular stripe (vs. dorsum variable but never with alternated black blotches separated by vertebral line and having a conspicuous descending postocular stripe). Atractus boimirim also differs from the Pantepui species A. insipidus, with which it was previously confused (see Passos et al. 2013a), by having 143–154 ventral and 23–28 subcaudal scales in males (vs. 157 ventral and 34 subcaudals in the single known male). 
CommentHabitat: Amazonian rainforest 
EtymologyThe specific epithet ‘‘boimirim’’ is a Tupi indigenous name (the linguistic branch of most Brazilian Indians), here employed as a noun in apposition alluding to the small body size of the new species (bóî = snake; mirim = small). The spelling (‘m) with the prefix ‘m before the snake radical bóî is optional in some variants of the Tupi-Guarani vocabulary. 
  • Melo-Sampaio, Paulo Roberto; Paulo Passos, Antoine Fouquet, Ana Lucia Da Costa Prudente & Omar Torres-Carvajal 2019. Systematic review of Atractus schach (Serpentes: Dipsadidae) species complex from the Guiana Shield with description of three new species. Systematics and Biodiversity, 17:3, 207-229, DOI: 10.1080/14772000.2019.1611674 - get paper here
  • Nogueira, Cristiano C.; Antonio J.S. Argôlo, Vanesa Arzamendia, Josué A. Azevedo, Fausto E. Barbo, Renato S. Bérnils, Bruna E. Bolochio, Marcio Borges-Martins, Marcela Brasil-Godinho, Henrique Braz, Marcus A. Buononato, Diego F. Cisneros-Heredia, 2019. Atlas of Brazilian snakes: verified point-locality maps to mitigate the Wallacean shortfall in a megadiverse snake fauna. South American J. Herp. 14 (Special Issue 1):1-274 - get paper here
  • Passos, Paulo; Ana L.C. Prudente and John D. Lynch 2016. Redescription of Atractus punctiventris and Description of Two New Atractus (Serpentes: Dipsadidae) from Brazilian Amazonia. Herp. Monographs 30 (1): 1-20 - get paper here
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