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Atractus collaris PERACCA, 1897

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Higher TaxaColubridae (Dipsadinae), Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Common NamesE: Collared Ground Snake
E: Limitan Ground Snake [limitaneus] 
SynonymAtractus collaris PERACCA 1897: 4
Leptocalamus limitaneus AMARAL 1935: 219
Leptocalamus limitaneus AMARAL 1937: 1762
Atractus limitaneus — SAVAGE 1960: 81
Atractus collaris — PETERS et al. 1970: 28
Atractus collaris — CARRILLO & ICOCHEA 1995: 13
Atractus collaris — PASSOS et al. 2007
Atractus collaris — WALLACH et al. 2014: 70
Atractus limitaneus — WALLACH et al. 2014: 74
Atractus collaris — PASSOS et al. 2018
Atractus collaris — NOGUEIRA et al. 2019 
DistributionEcuador (Amazonas, Napo, Orellana, Sucumbíos), NE Peru, Colombia (Amazonas, Caquetá), Brazil (Amazônas, Nogueira et al., 2019)

Type locality: Río Cononaco, Prov. Pastaza, Ecuador

limitaneus: Colombia (Amazonas); Type locality: La Pedrera, Río Caquetá, Comisaria de Amazonas, Colombia
TypesHolotype: MRSN (also as MRSNT, Torino) fide Passos et al. 2018; Types not traced by ANDREONE & GAVETTI 2007.
Holotype: IBSP 9196 [limitaneus] 
DiagnosisDIAGNOSIS: A form obviously allied to A. gaigeae of Ecuador and A. bocourti of northeastern Perú,but distinct from them in both coloration and scutellation. Distinguished from all members of the genus known from Ecuador in: (1) 17 scale rows; (2) long loreal; (3) five maxillary teeth; (4) ventrals in male holotype 163, in female 175; and (5) pattern of six longitudinal dark stripes and a paired series of dorsolateral blotches [from SAVAGE 1960].

Diagnosis: Atractus collaris is distinguished from all congeners, except for those species of the A. collaris species group by having one (usually) or two (rarely) apical pits on dorsal scales from both sexes and supracloacal tubercles in the cloacal region of mature males (Passos et al. 2013b). Additionally, the following combination of morphological characters is unique of the species and distinguishes it from any other species of Atractus: (1) dorsal scale rows 17/17/17 with apical pits in both sexes and supracloacal tubercles in males; (2) postoculars two; (3) moderately long loreal, contacting first three supralabials; (4) temporals 1+2; (5) seven supralabials, third and fourth contacting eye; (6) seven infralabials, first three contacting chinshields; (7) five (rarely) or six maxillary teeth; (8) gular scale rows in four series; (9) preventrals usually four; (10) ventrals 167–186 in females, 145–178 in males; (11) subcaudals 18–24 in females, 22–33 in males; (12) in preservative, dorsum brown to grayish black, with cream occipital collar incomplete and small paired black spots usually cream bordered along the body, first dorsal scale rows with lighter center and brown lateral lines; (13) in preservative, venter cream except for two lines (one from each side of belly) in the lateral margins of ventral scales (paraventral region); (14) small body size, females reaching 300 mm SVL, males 218 mm; (15) moderately tail length in females (8.2–10.9.3% SVL) and males (10.9–14.5% SVL); (16) hemipenis moderately bilobed, non-capitate, and non-calyculate (fide Passos et al. 2018).

Comparisons. Atractus collaris differs from all members of the A. collaris species group, except A. alphonsenhogei and A. gaigeae, in having first supralabial contacting loreal (vs. first supralabial not contacting loreal in A. caxiuana, A. hoogmoedi, A. surucucu, and A. zidoki). Atractus collaris differs from A. alphonsehogei in having descalcified alary spines and hemipenial lobes centrolineally oriented, dorsum with conspicuous spots, and yellow supralabials (vs. calcified alary spines and hemipenial lobes centrifugally oriented, dorsum uniformly dark brown or black lacking spots, and cream supralabials; from A. gaigeae in having 167–186 ventrals in females, 146–178 in males and lacking the vertebral line (vs. 200–214 ventrals in females, 184–198 in males) (fide Passos et al. 2018). 
CommentSynonymy: Passos et al. 2018 synonymized Atractus limitaneus with A. collaris.

Distribution: see map in Passos et al. 2018: 513 (Fig. 12). See map in Nogueira et al. 2019. 
EtymologyProbably named after the Latin word collaris meaning collar (Lemos-Espinal & Dixon 2013) for the yellow or orange collar or nape. 
  • Amaral, A. 1935. Estudos sobre ophídios neotropicos XXXIII. Novas especies de ophídios do Colombia. Mem. Inst. Butantan 9: 219-223 + 1 plate - get paper here
  • Amaral,A. do 1937. New species of ophidians from Colombia. Compte Rendu 12th Congress Internat. Zool., Lisbon 3 [139 (141)]: 1762-1767 [1935]
  • Andreone, Franco; Gavetti, Elena 2007. The life and herpetological contributions of Mario Giacinto Peracca (1861-1923). [type catalogue] SSAR, 570 pp
  • Metcalf, Matthew; Alexander Marsh, Emerson Torres, Devon Graham, Charles Gunnels 2020. Herpetofauna of the Santa Cruz Forest Preserve in the Peruvian Amazon Basin. Herpetology Notes 13: 753-767 - get paper here
  • Nogueira, Cristiano C.; Antonio J.S. Argôlo, Vanesa Arzamendia, Josué A. Azevedo, Fausto E. Barbo, Renato S. Bérnils, Bruna E. Bolochio, Marcio Borges-Martins, Marcela Brasil-Godinho, Henrique Braz, Marcus A. Buononato, Diego F. Cisneros-Heredia, 2019. Atlas of Brazilian snakes: verified point-locality maps to mitigate the Wallacean shortfall in a megadiverse snake fauna. South American J. Herp. 14 (Special Issue 1):1-274 - get paper here
  • Passos, P. & Fernandes, R. 2008. A new species of the colubrid snake genus Atractus (Reptilia: Serpentes) from the central Amazon of Brazil. Zootaxa 1849: 59–66 - get paper here
  • Passos, P., R. Fernandes and Borges-Nojosa, D.M. 2007. A New Species of Atractus (Serpentes: Dipsadinae) from a Relictual Forest in Northeastern Brazil. Copeia 2007 (4): 788–797 - get paper here
  • PASSOS, PAULO; ANA L. C. PRUDENTE, LUCIANA O. RAMOS, JOSÉ RANCES CAICEDO-PORTILLA, JOHN D. LYNCH 2018. Species delimitations in the Atractus collaris complex (Serpentes: Dipsadidae). Zootaxa 4392 (3): 491–520 - get paper here
  • Peracca, M.G. 1897. Intorna ad una piccola raccolta di Rettili di Cononacco (Perù orientale). Bollettino dei Musei di Zoologia e di Anatomia Comparata della R. Università di Torino 12 (284): 1-7 - get paper here
  • Pérez-Santos,C. & Moreno, A.G. 1988. Ofidios de Colombia. Museo reegionale di Scienze Naturali, Torino, Monographie VI, 517 pp.
  • Peters, James A.; Donoso-Barros, Roberto & Orejas-Miranda, Braulio 1970. Catalogue of the Neotropical Squamata: Part I Snakes. Bull. US Natl. Mus. 297: 347 pp. - get paper here
  • Prudente, Ana L.C and Paulo Passos 2008. New Species of Atractus Wagler, 1828 (Serpentes: Dipsadinae) from Guyana Plateau in Northern Brazil. Journal of Herpetology 42 (4): 723 - get paper here
  • Savage,J.M. 1960. A revision of the Ecuadorian snakes of the colubrid genus Atractus. Misc. Publ. Zool. Univ. Michigan 112: 1-86 - get paper here
  • Torres-Carvajal O, Pazmiño-Otamendi G, Salazar-Valenzuela D. 2019. Reptiles of Ecuador: a resource-rich portal, with a dynamic checklist and photographic guides. Amphibian & Reptile Conservation 13 (1): [General Section]: 209–229 (e178) - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
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