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Higher TaxaColubridae (Dipsadinae), Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Common NamesPortuguese: Cobra-da-Terra 
SynonymAtractus francoi PASSOS, FERNANDES, BÉRNILS & MOURA-LEITE 2010
Atractus sp. – MARQUES et al. 2004
Atractus francoi — WALLACH et al. 2014: 73
Atractus francoi — NOGUEIRA et al. 2019 
DistributionBrazil (Rio de Janeiro: Highlands of the Serra da Bocaina and Serra dos Órgãos)

Type locality: Fazenda Recanto, Serra do Piloto (22°50’S, 44°03’W, ca. 600 m), municipality of Mangaratiba, state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.  
Reproductionoviparous (not imputed, fide Zimin et al. 2022) 
TypesHolotype: MNRJ 17537, adult male, (formerly DZUFRJ 1742), collected 17 July 2006 by M. C. Carlo. 
DiagnosisDiagnosis: Atractus francoi is distinguished from all known congeners by the following combination of characters: (1) 17/17/17 smooth dorsal scale rows; (2) two postoculars; (3) moderate loreal; (4) temporals 1+2; (5) usually seven supralabials (six in one side), third and fourth contacting orbit; (6) seven infralabials, first four contacting chinshields; (7) eight or nine maxillary teeth; (8) two to four gular scale rows; (9) three or four preventrals; (10) 156–164 ventrals in females and 162–164 in males; (11) 14–19 subcaudals in females and 25–30 in males; (12) dorsum uniformly black in adults and brown with scattered small black dots in juveniles; (13) venter beige anteriorly, becoming gradually black after 15th ventral in juveniles and adults; (14) moderate body size, females reaching 473 mm SVL and males 420 mm SVL; (15) tail short in females (6.3– 8.6% SVL) and moderate (12.6–13.6% SVL) in males; (16) moderately bilobed, semicapitate, and semicalyculate hemipenis. 
EtymologyThis species is dedicated to a friend of the authors, Dr. Francisco Luís Franco, Curator of Herpetology at Instituto Butantan in Brazil, for his contribution to the systematics of South American snakes, and also for calling their attention to this undescribed species. 
  • Beolens, Bo; Michael Watkins, and Michael Grayson 2011. The Eponym Dictionary of Reptiles. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, USA - get paper here
  • Gonzalez R. C. et al. 2020. Lista dos Nomes Populares dos Répteis no Brasil – Primeira Versão. Herpetologia Brasileira 9 (2): 121 – 214 - get paper here
  • Nogueira, Cristiano C.; Antonio J.S. Argôlo, Vanesa Arzamendia, Josué A. Azevedo, Fausto E. Barbo, Renato S. Bérnils, Bruna E. Bolochio, Marcio Borges-Martins, Marcela Brasil-Godinho, Henrique Braz, Marcus A. Buononato, Diego F. Cisneros-Heredia, 2019. Atlas of Brazilian snakes: verified point-locality maps to mitigate the Wallacean shortfall in a megadiverse snake fauna. South American J. Herp. 14 (Special Issue 1):1-274 - get paper here
  • Oliveira, Jane C.F.; Rodrigo Castellari Gonzalez; Paulo Passos; Davor Vrcibradic & Carlos Frederico Duarte Rocha 2020. Non-Avian Reptiles of the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: status of knowledge and commented list. Pap. Avulsos Zool. 60: e20206024 - get paper here
  • Passos, P.; Fernandes, R.; Bernils, R.S. & Moura-Leite, J.C. de 2010. Taxonomic revision of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest Atractus (Reptilia: Serpentes: Dipsadidae). Zootaxa 2364: 1–63 - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
  • Zaher, Hussam; Fausto Erritto BarboI; Paola Sanchez Martínez; Cristiano Nogueira; Miguel Trefaut Rodrigues; Ricardo Jannini Sawaya 2011. Répteis do Estado de São Paulo: conhecimento atual e perspectivas. Biota Neotropica, 11 (1): 1–15. - get paper here
  • Zimin, A., Zimin, S. V., Shine, R., Avila, L., Bauer, A., Böhm, M., Brown, R., Barki, G., de Oliveira Caetano, G. H., Castro Herrera, F., Chapple, D. G., Chirio, L., Colli, G. R., Doan, T. M., Glaw, F., Grismer, L. L., Itescu, Y., Kraus, F., LeBreton 2022. A global analysis of viviparity in squamates highlights its prevalence in cold climates. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 00, 1–16 - get paper here
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