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Atractus major BOULENGER, 1894

IUCN Red List - Atractus major - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaColubridae (Dipsadinae), Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes) 
Subspecies 
Common NamesBrown Ground Snake, Big Ground Snake 
SynonymAtractus major BOULENGER 1894: 307
Atractus arangoi PRADO 1939: 1 (fide SCHARGEL et al. 2013)
Atractus major — SAVAGE 1960: 47
Atractus major — PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970: 31
Atractus major — DUELLMAN 1978: 229
Atractus badius — PERÉZ-SANTOS & MORENO 1988: 68 (part., plate 10)
Atractus major — KORNACKER 1999: 65
Atractus major — PASSOS et al. 2007
Atractus major — WALLACH et al. 2014: 75 
DistributionEcuador (TF Amazonas), Colombia (Amazonas, Rondônia, Caquetá [e.g. Caqueta, Florencia - CI Macagual, F. Castro, pers. comm.], Putumayo), Venezuela (Amazonas, Bolívar, Táchira), Brazil (Amazonas, Pará [HR 35: 189]), Peru (Amazonas, Cusco, Madre de Dios, Huánuco, Loreto, Madre de Díos, San Martin, Ucayali)

Type locality: Canelos, Provinzia Pastaza, Ecuador, 01°36’S, 77°48’W; ca. 520 m elevation. Map legend:
Type locality - Type locality.
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
Reproductionoviparous. 
TypesHolotype: BMNH 1946.9.7.27 (juvenile male)
Lectotype: BMNH 1946.9.7.27
Holotype: female, “Colombia” (MLS 136) [arangoi] 
CommentDistribution: not in Bolivia (La Paz) fide SCHARGEL et al. 2013.

Diagnosis: The largest Ecuadorian species, distinguished by the following combination of characteristics: (1) 17 scale rows; (2) long loreal; (3) maxillary teeth six or seven, very rarely five; (4) ventrals in males, 148- 172 (159), in females, 157-181 (167); and (5) pattern or blotches or bands [from SAVAGE 1960].

Diagnosis. A species of Atractus with 17 midbody dorsal scales rows, differing from all congeners by the following combination of characters: (1) large size, adults reaching almost 800 mm in TL; (2) loreal long (about three times longer than high); (3) generally seven (rarely six) supralabials with third and fourth in contact with eye; (4) generally seven (rarely six) infralabials with first three in contact with chinshields; (5) five to seven maxillary teeth, usually with a single postdiastemal teeth; (6) 163–185 ventral scales in females and 150–173 in males; (7) 27–37 subcaudal scales in females and 29–53 in males; (8) tail of moderate length: Tail/TL 9.4–12.5% in females and 11.6–18.8% in males; (9) dorsal color pattern consisting of dark brown blotches or bands edged by yellow or cream on a pale to medium brown ground color [SCHARGEL et al. 2013]. 
References
  • BERNARDE, P.S., ALBUQUERQUE, S., BARROS, T.O. & TURCI, L.C.B. 2012. Serpentes do Estado de Rondônia, Brasil. Biota Neotrop. 12(3): 1-29 - get paper here
  • Boulenger, George A. 1894. Catalogue of the Snakes in the British Museum (Natural History). Volume II., Containing the Conclusion of the Colubridæ Aglyphæ. British Mus. (Nat. Hist.), London, xi, 382 pp. - get paper here
  • CATENAZZI, A., LEHR, E. & VON MAY, R. 2013. The amphibians and reptiles of Manu National Park and its buffer zone, Amazon basin and eastern slopes of the Andes, Peru. Biota Neotrop. 13(4): 269-283
  • Duellman, W. E. 1978. The biology of an equatorial herpetofauna in Amazonian Ecuador. Misc. Publ. Univ. Kans. Mus. Nat. Hist. 65: 1-352 - get paper here
  • Duellman, W. E. 2005. Cusco Amazónico: The Lives of Amphibians and Reptiles in an Amazonian Rainforest. Comstock Pub Assoc.
  • Duellman, W.E., & Salas, A.W. 1991. Annotated checklist of the amphibians and reptiles of Cuzco Amazonico, Peru. Occas. Papers Mus. of Natur. Hist., Univ. of Kansas, Lawrence (143): 13 pp. - get paper here
  • Esqueda, L.F. & E. La Marca 2005. Revisión taxonómica y biogeográfica (con descripción de cinco nuevas especies) de serpientes del género Atractus (Colubridae: Dipsadinae) en los Andes de Venezuela. Herpetotropicos 2 (1): 1-32 - get paper here
  • Kornacker,P.M. 1999. Checklist and key to the snakes of Venezuela. PaKo-Verlag, Rheinbach, Germany, 270 pp.
  • Lancini,A.R. & Kornacker,P.M. 1989. Die Schlangen von Venezuela. Armitano Editores C.A., Caracas, 1-381
  • Lehr, E. 2002. Amphibien und Reptilien in Peru. Natur und Tier-Verlag (Münster), 208 pp. - get paper here
  • Martins M. Oliveira M E. 1993. The snakes of the genus Atractus Wagler (Reptilia: Squamata: Colubridae) from the Manaus region, central Amazonia, Brazil. Zool. Meded. 67 (1-26): 21-40. - get paper here
  • Morato, S.A.A.; Calixto, P.O.; Mendes, L.R.; Gomes, R.; Galatti, U.; Trein, F.L.; Oliveira, F.S.; Ferreira, G.N. 2014. Guia fotográfico de identificação da herpetofauna da Floresta Nacional de Saracá-Taquera, Estado do Pará. Curitiba: STCP Engenharia de Projetos Ltda.; Porto Trombetas: MRN – Mineração Rio do Norte S.A.; 213 p. - get paper here
  • Natera-Mumaw, Marco; Luis Felipe Esqueda-González & Manuel Castelaín-Fernández 2015. Atlas Serpientes de Venezuela Santiago de Chile, Dimacofi Negocios Avanzados S.A., 456 pp. - get paper here
  • Passos, P. & Fernandes, R. 2008. A new species of the colubrid snake genus Atractus (Reptilia: Serpentes) from the central Amazon of Brazil. Zootaxa 1849: 59–66 - get paper here
  • Passos, P., Dobiey, M., & Venegas, P. J. 2010. Variation and natural history notes on giant groundsnake, Atractus gigas (Serpentes: Dipsadidae). South American Journal of Herpetology, 5(2): 73-82 - get paper here
  • Passos, P., R. Fernandes and Borges-Nojosa, D.M. 2007. A New Species of Atractus (Serpentes: Dipsadinae) from a Relictual Forest in Northeastern Brazil. Copeia 2007 (4): 788–797 - get paper here
  • Passos, Paulo; Philippe J. R. Kok, Nelson R. de Albuquerque, and Gilson A. Rivas 2013. Groundsnakes of the Lost World: A Review of Atractus (Serpentes: Dipsadidae) from the Pantepui Region, Northern South America. Herpetological Monographs 27 (1): 52-86 - get paper here
  • Pérez-Santos,C. & Moreno, A.G. 1988. Ofidios de Colombia. Museo reegionale di Scienze Naturali, Torino, Monographie VI, 517 pp.
  • RIVAS, GILSON A.; CÉSAR R. MOLINA, GABRIEL N. UGUETO, TITO R. BARROS, CÉSAR L. BAR- RIO-AMORÓS & PHILIPPE J. R. KOK 2012. Reptiles of Venezuela: an updated and commented checklist. Zootaxa 3211: 1–64 - get paper here
  • Roze, Jánis A. 1961. El genero Atractus (Serpentes: Colubridae) en Venezuela. Acta Biologica Venezuelica 3 (7): 103-119
  • Santos-Costa, Maria Cristina dos; Gleomar Fabiano Maschio, Ana Lúcia da Costa Prudente 2015. Natural history of snakes from Floresta Nacional de Caxiuanã, eastern Amazonia, Brazil Herpetology Notes 8: 69-98 - get paper here
  • Savage,J.M. 1960. A revision of the Ecuadorian snakes of the colubrid genus Atractus. Misc. Publ. Zool. Univ. Michigan 112: 1-86 - get paper here
  • Schargel, W.E. & Castoe, T.A. 2003. The hemipenes of some snakes of the semifossorial genus Atractus, with comments on variation in the genus. Journal of Herpetology 37 (4): 718-781 - get paper here
  • SCHARGEL, WALTER E.; WILLIAM W. LAMAR, PAULO PASSOS, JORGE H. VALENCIA, DIEGO F. CISNEROS-HEREDIA, JONATHAN A. CAMPBELL 2013. A new giant Atractus (Serpentes: Dipsadidae) from Ecuador, with notes on some other large Amazonian congeners. Zootaxa 3721 (5): 455–474 - get paper here
  • Silva Haad, J.J. 2004. Las serpientes del género Atractus Wagler, 1828 (Colubridae; Xenodontinae) en la Amazonia colombiana. [The snakes of the genus Atractus Wagler, 1828 (Colubridae; Xenodontinae) in the colombian Amazonia.]. Revista de la Academia Colombiana de Ciencias Exactas, Físicas y Naturales (108): 409-446
  • Whithworth, A. & Beirne, C. 2011. Reptiles of the Yachana Reserve. Global Vision International, 130 pp. - get paper here
 
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