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Higher TaxaColubridae (Dipsadinae), Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Common Names 
Atractus touzeti — ARTEAGA et al. 2017
Atractus pachacamac — ALMENDÁRIZ et al. 2023 
DistributionColombia, Ecuador, Peru (Amazon foothills between 350–1500 m elevation)

Type locality: Ecuador, Napo, Sumaco Wildlife Sanctuary, Sendero Benavides (0.676°S, 77.600°W), 1496 m elevation.  
TypesHolotype: QCAZ 12630, adult male, collected by F. Ayala on 4 April 2014.
Paratopotypes (n = 4): QCAZ, DHMECN.
Paratypes (n = 24): EPN, QCAZ, FHGO, DHMECN, CORBIDI, MEPN-H (Ecuador) 
DiagnosisDiagnosis: Atractus pachacamac can be distinguished from all congeners by unique combination of the following characters: (1) smooth dorsal scale rows 17/17/17; (2) postoculars two; (3) loreal moderately long; (4) temporal formula 1+2; (5) supralabials seven, third and fourth contacting eye; (6) infralabials usually eight, first four contacting chin-shields; (7) maxillary teeth seven; (8) gular scale rows three; (9) usually two preventrals; (10) ventrals 162–175 in females, 158–167 in males; (11) subcaudals 31–33 in females, 39–45 in males; (12) in preservative, dorsum sepia with saval brown bands; (13) in preservative, venter chamois anteriorly and sepia with chamois spots posteriorly; (14) long body in females (maximum 620 mm SVL) and moderately long in males (maximum 460 mm SVL); (15) tail size moderately long in females (12.1–13.6% of SVL) and long in males (17.5%–19.5% of SVL); and (16) hemipenes moderately bilobed (≤half the length of capitulum), semicapitate, and semicalyculate. 
CommentSynonymy: the specimen listed as A. touzeti (ANF 2590 = MZUTI 5409) by Arteaga et al. (2017) belongs to A. pachacamac. 
EtymologyAccording to the Inca mythology, Pachacámac or Pacha Kamaq (“creator of the land”; being pacha: “land” and kamaq: “creator” or “created” in Quechua language) was a god. The Pachacámac, son of the sun, came to our world and climbed to the highest summit (perhaps a volcano) to throw four stones to the four cardinal points, thereby taking possession of everything that covered his sight and reached his stones. The name also refers to fossorial lifestyle in high elevations. 
  • Almendáriz A, Almeida-Reinoso D, Guerra MA 2023. Catalogue of type specimens deposited in the Herpetology Collection of the Natural History Museum Gustavo Orcés V. at Escuela Politécnica Nacional (Ecuador). Biodiversity Data Journal 11: e108596 - get paper here
  • Arteaga A, Mebert K, Valencia JH, Cisneros-Heredia DF, Peñafiel N, Reyes-Puig C, Vieira-Fernandes JL, Guayasamin JM 2017. Molecular phylogeny of Atractus (Serpentes, Dipsadidae), with emphasis on Ecuadorian species and the description of three new taxa. ZooKeys 661: 91-123. - get paper here
  • Melo‐Sampaio, PR, Passos, P, Prudente, ALC, Venegas, PJ, Torres‐Carvajal, O. 2021. Systematic review of the polychromatic ground snakes Atractus snethlageae complex reveals four new species from threatened environments. J Zool Syst Evol Res. 2021; 59: 718– 747 - get paper here
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