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Atractus paraguayensis WERNER, 1924

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Higher TaxaColubridae (Dipsadinae), Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Common NamesPortuguese: Cobra-Coral-da-Terra, Cobra-de-Terra-Listrada, Cobrinha-da-Terra, Falsa-Coral 
SynonymAtractus paraguayensis WERNER 1924: 40
Atractus reticulatus paraguayensis — AMARAL 1929: 27
Atractus taeniatus – WILLIAMS & GUDYNAS 1991
Atractus taeniatus – LEMA 1994:106
Atractus taeniatus – PASSOS et al. 2005: 211
Atractus reticulatus – VANZOLINI 2000
Atractus paraguayensis – GIRAUDO & SCROCCHI 2002
Atractus trihedrurus – LEMA 2005
Atractus paraguayensis — PASSOS et al. 2005
Atractus paraguayensis — WALLACH et al. 2014: 79
Atractus paraguayensis — NOGUEIRA et al. 2019 
DistributionParaguay, Argentina (Corrientes, Entre Rios), Brazil (Paraná, Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina).

Type locality: Paraguay; restricted to Bernal Cué (25°16’19.16”S; 57°15’24.83”W) by Cabral & Cacciali 2018.  
TypesHolotype: NMW 23443, adult female, (formerly NHMW = NMW 130), collected by G. Wieninger. 
DiagnosisDiagnosis: Atractus paraguayensis is distinguished from all congeners by the combination of the following characters: (1) 15/15/15 smooth dorsal scale rows; (2) usually two postoculars; (3) moderate loreal; (4) temporals 1+2; (5) seven supralabials, third and fourth contacting orbit; (6) usually seven infralabials, first four contacting chinshields; (7) eight or nine maxillary teeth; (8) usually three gular scale rows; (10) 147–167 ventrals in females, 136–162 in males; (11) 19–29 subcaudals in females, 21–33 in males; (12) dorsum beige with black paravertebral blotches, a single vertebral line, or both; (13) venter immaculate creamish white; (14) moderate body size, females reaching 490 mm SVL, males 375 mm SVL; (15) tail moderate in females (9.3– 14.8% SVL), moderate to long (12.7–18.1 % SVL) in males; (16) slightly bilobed, semicapitate, and semicalyculate hemipenis [from PASSOS et al. 2010]. 
CommentSynonymy mostly after PASSOS et al. 2010. Vanzolini (2000) and others considered A.paraguayensis as synonym of A.reticulatus. 
EtymologyNamed after its type locality. 
  • Amaral, A. do 1930. Estudos sobre ophidios neotropicos XVII. Valor systematico de varias formas de ophidios neotropicos. Mem. Inst. Butantan 4: 1-68 [1929] - get paper here
  • Cabral-Beconi, Hugo; Cacciali, Pier 2018. On the type locality of Atractus paraguayensis Werner, 1924 (Serpentes: Dipsadidae). Cuad. herpetol. 32 (1): 59-60 - get paper here
  • Cacciali, P.; Villalba, R. & Yanosky, A.A. 2007. A NEW SPECIES OF ATRACTUS (SERPENTES:COLUBRIDAE: DIPSADINAE) FROM THE ATLANTIC FOREST OF ALTO PARANÁ, PARAGUAY. South American J. Herp. 2 (2): 83-88 - get paper here
  • Cacciali, Pier; Norman J. Scott, Aida Luz Aquino Ortíz, Lee A. Fitzgerald, and Paul Smith 2016. The Reptiles of Paraguay: Literature, Distribution, and an Annotated Taxonomic Checklist. SPECIAL PUBLICATION OF THE MUSEUM OF SOUTHWESTERN BIOLOGY, NUMBER 11: 1–373 - get paper here
  • Entiauspe-Neto, O.M.; A.D. Abegg. 2013. New record and distribution extension of Atractus paraguayensis Werner, 1924 (Serpentes: Dipsadidae). Check List 9 (1): 104-105 - get paper here
  • França, R. C., França, F. G., Rödder, D., & Solé, M. 2022. Historical collection of snakes from Brazil by herpetologist and biogeographer Paul Müller (1940–2010), deposited at the Zoological Research Museum Alexander Koenig, Germany. Bonn zoological Bulletin 71 (1): 41–49 - get paper here
  • Gemel, R.; G. Gassner & S. Schweiger 2019. Katalog der Typen der Herpetologischen Sammlung des Naturhistorischen Museums Wien – 2018. Ann. Naturhist. Mus. Wien, B 121: 33–248
  • Giraudo, A. R., and G. J. Scrocchi 2002. Argentinian Snakes: An Annotated Checklist. Smithsonian Herp. Inf. Serv. (132): 1-53 - get paper here
  • Gonzalez R. C. et al. 2020. Lista dos Nomes Populares dos Répteis no Brasil – Primeira Versão. Herpetologia Brasileira 9 (2): 121 – 214 - get paper here
  • Nogueira, Cristiano C.; Antonio J.S. Argôlo, Vanesa Arzamendia, Josué A. Azevedo, Fausto E. Barbo, Renato S. Bérnils, Bruna E. Bolochio, Marcio Borges-Martins, Marcela Brasil-Godinho, Henrique Braz, Marcus A. Buononato, Diego F. Cisneros-Heredia, 2019. Atlas of Brazilian snakes: verified point-locality maps to mitigate the Wallacean shortfall in a megadiverse snake fauna. South American J. Herp. 14 (Special Issue 1):1-274 - get paper here
  • Passos, P., R. Fernandes and Borges-Nojosa, D.M. 2007. A New Species of Atractus (Serpentes: Dipsadinae) from a Relictual Forest in Northeastern Brazil. Copeia 2007 (4): 788–797 - get paper here
  • Passos, P., R. Fernandes and N. Zanella 2005. A new species of Atractus (Serpentes: Colubridae) from Southern Brazil. Herpetologica 61 (2): 209-218 - get paper here
  • Passos, P.; Fernandes, R.; Bernils, R.S. & Moura-Leite, J.C. de 2010. Taxonomic revision of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest Atractus (Reptilia: Serpentes: Dipsadidae). Zootaxa 2364: 1–63 - get paper here
  • Passos, Paulo; TeixeirA Junior, Mauro; Recoder, Renato S.; Sena, Marco Aurélio de; Vechio, Francisco Dal; Pinto, Hugo Bonfim de A.; Mendonça, Sônia H.S.T.; Cassimiro, José; Rodrigues, Miguel Trefaut 2013. A new species of Atractus (Serpentes: Dipsadidae) from Serra do Cipó, Espinhaço Range, Southeastern Brazil, with proposition of a new species group to the genus. Pap. Avulsos Zool. (São Paulo) 53 (6):75‐85 - get paper here
  • VANZOLINI, P.E. 2000. Notes on the South American reptiles in the collection of the Naturhistorisches Museum, Vienna. Papéis Avulsos de Zoologia, 41:135-154 - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
  • Werner, F. 1924. Neue oder wenig bekannte Schlangen aus dem Naturhistorischen Staatsmuseum in Wien. l. Teil. Sitzungsb. Ber. Akad. Wiss., Wien, Abt. l, 133: 29 - 56 - get paper here
  • Williams,J.D. & Gudynas,E. 1991. Revalidation and redescription of Atractus taeniatus GRIFFIN 1916 (Serpentes,Colubridae). Contribuiciones en Biologia 15: 1-8
  • Zanella N, D'Agostini F 2018. Ecology of the Dipsadidae Atractus paraguayensis from Southern Brazil. Zoologia 35: 1-6 - get paper here
  • ZANELLA, N., PAULA, A., GUARAGNI, S.A. & MACHADO, L.S. 2013. Herpetofauna of the Parque Natural Municipal de Sertão, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Biota Neotrop. 13(4): 290-299 - get paper here
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