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Higher TaxaColubridae (Dipsadinae), Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Common NamesPortuguese: Cobra-da-terra, Falsa-Coral-Manchada, Fura-Terra 
Atractus flammigerus snethlageae — CUNHA & & NASCIMENTO 1983 (in part)
Atractus trefauti — NOGUEIRA et al. 2019 
DistributionFrench Guiana, Brazil (Amapa, Para)

Type locality: Route de l’Est N2, Roura, French Guiana, (4°29' 19.7" N, 52°21' 01.4" W; 43 m asl).  
TypesHolotype: MNRJ 26709 Adult male, (field number AF 814): coll. A. Fouquet, E. Courtois and M. Dewynter, 18 December 2012. Paratypes. Females (n 1⁄4 3) MPEG 25788: coll. U. Gallatti, D. Silvano and B. Pimenta, 9 November 2000, Serra do Navio, Amapa, Brazil. MPEG 16382: [formerly paratype of Atractus flammigerus snethlageae] coll. J. Luiz, 17 July 1977, Serra do Navio, Amapa, Brazil. MNHN 2015.56: coll. F. Starace, 16 April 2015, Reserve de la Trinite, Mont Tabulaire, French Guiana. Males (n1⁄42) MPEG 21354–55: coll. T.A. Gardner and M.A. Ribeiro-Junior, 21 March 2005, Monte Dourado (11'32"S, 5254'17"W), Almeirim, Para, Brazil. 
DiagnosisDiagnosis: Atractus trefauti can be distinguished from all congeners by the unique combination of the following characters: (1) smooth dorsal scale rows 17/ 17/17; (2) postoculars two; (3) loreal moderately long; (4) temporal formula 1 þ 2; (5) supralabials seven, third and fourth contacting eye; (6) infralabials eight, first four contacting chinshields; (7) maxillary teeth five to seven; (8) gular scale rows three; (9) three preventrals; (10) ventrals 153–158 in females, 139–149 in males; (11) subcaudals 21–24 in females, 24–29 in males; (12) in preservative, dorsum black with a series of white regular bands one scale long, interrupted on vertebral scales, 15–26 in females, 27–40 in males; (13) in preservative, venter pale cream with scattered brown dots almost forming a midventral line, increasing in size in the posterior half of body; (14) small body size in both sexes (maximum SVL 332 mm in females, 295 mm SVL in males); (15) moderately short tail in females (8.3–9.9% SVL), moderately long tail in males (12.2–13.2% SVL); (16) hemipenis slightly bilobed, semicapitate and semicalyculate.
Comparisons. Atractus trefauti differs from A. aboiporu, A. elaps, A. latifrons, A. insipidus, A. tamessari, and A. trilineatus by having 17 (vs. 15) dorsal scales rows. Regarding the species with 17 dorsal scales rows, A. trefauti differs from A. badius by its dorsal colouration of black with pale brown transverse bands, ventral colouration with scattered brown dots and <30 subcaudals (vs. 'coral colour pattern' with black dyads separated by cream bands; venter immaculate cream anteriorly and with squared black spots from midbody to posterior region of belly; >30 subcaudals); from A. flammigerus by having maximum SVL 300mm in both sexes and absence of keeled dorsal scales near cloaca (vs. SVL> 300 mm in adults, keeled dorsal scales in A. flammigerus); from A. schach by having a black dorsum with beige bands, black iris (Fig. 7) and well-defined hemipenial capitular groove (vs. olive brown with dark greyish brown bands; light brown iris and indistinct hemipenial capitular groove in A. schach) (Fig. 8.1); from A. torquatus by having maximum SVL 300 mm in both sexes and two postoculars (vs. SVL <300mm in adults from both sexes; one postocular in A. torquatus from GS; Passos and Prudente, 2012); from A. zidoki by having smooth dorsal scales without apical pits, black dorsum with pale brown bands and bilobed hemipenis (vs. apical pits present in dorsal scales, pale brown dorsum with longitudinal series of paravertebral spots and unilobed hemipenis in A. zidoki); from A. snethlageae by having invariably black dorsal ground colour across age and sex (Fig. 9; our sample comprises both adult and females with no indication of ontogenetic change), 15–18 dorsal beige bands in females and 21–40 in males (vs. dark brown dorsum with 24–34 dorsal pale bands in females and 28–31 in males). Atractus trefauti also differs from A. snethlageae in having 24–28 subcaudals in males (vs. 29–34 subcaudals A. snethlageae). 
EtymologyThe specific epithet honours Dr Miguel Trefaut Urbano Rodrigues from Universidade de São Paulo (USP) for his extensive contributions in the study of New World herpetofauna, especially with respect to Atractus from Guiana Shield. 
  • Cunha, O R da; do Nascimento F P 1983. Ofidios da Amazonia. 20 - As especies de Atractus Wagler, 1828, na Amazonia oriental & Maranhao (Ophidia, Colubridae). Boletim do Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi NOVA SERIE ZOOLOGIA (No. 123): 1-38 - get paper here
  • Gonzalez R. C. et al. 2020. Lista dos Nomes Populares dos Répteis no Brasil – Primeira Versão. Herpetologia Brasileira 9 (2): 121 – 214 - get paper here
  • Melo-Sampaio, Paulo Roberto; Paulo Passos, Antoine Fouquet, Ana Lucia Da Costa Prudente & Omar Torres-Carvajal 2019. Systematic review of Atractus schach (Serpentes: Dipsadidae) species complex from the Guiana Shield with description of three new species. Systematics and Biodiversity, 17:3, 207-229, DOI: 10.1080/14772000.2019.1611674 - get paper here
  • Nogueira, Cristiano C.; Antonio J.S. Argôlo, Vanesa Arzamendia, Josué A. Azevedo, Fausto E. Barbo, Renato S. Bérnils, Bruna E. Bolochio, Marcio Borges-Martins, Marcela Brasil-Godinho, Henrique Braz, Marcus A. Buononato, Diego F. Cisneros-Heredia, 2019. Atlas of Brazilian snakes: verified point-locality maps to mitigate the Wallacean shortfall in a megadiverse snake fauna. South American J. Herp. 14 (Special Issue 1):1-274 - get paper here
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