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Atractus zebrinus (JAN, 1862)

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Higher TaxaColubridae (Dipsadinae), Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Common NamesPortuguese: Cobra-Coral, Cobra-Rajada, Cobrinha-da-Terra, Coral-Falsa, Fura-Terra 
SynonymRhabdosoma zebrinum JAN 1862: 15
Rhabdosoma maculatus – GÜNTHER 1858: 421 (part.)
Atractus maculatus – BOULENGER 1894: 306. (part.)
Atractus guentheri – AMARAL 1978: 114
Atractus cf. guentheri – LEMA 1994: 105. (part.)
Atractus maculatus – MOURA-LEITE et al. 1996:216
Atractus zebrinus – FERNANDES et al. 2000:4
Atractus zebrinus — PASSOS et al. 2005
Atractus zebrinus — CACCIALI et al. 2007
Atractus zebrinus — WALLACH et al. 2014: 84
Atractus zebrinus — NOGUEIRA et al. 2019 
DistributionBrazil (Bahia, Espírito Santo, Paraná, Rio de Janeiro, Santa Catarina, São Paulo)

Type locality: unknown  
TypesHolotype: MSNM (= MCHNM); Specimen without defined locality, originally housed at Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Milano (Jan 1862), believed to have been destroyed during the Second World War (S. Scali, cited in Passos et al. 2010). 
DiagnosisDiagnosis: Atractus zebrinus is distinguished from all congeners by the following combination of characters: (1) 17/17/17 smooth dorsal scale rows; (2) two postoculars; (3) loreal moderate; (4) temporals 1+2; (5) seven supralabials, third and fourth contacting orbit; (6) generally seven infralabials, first four contacting chinshields; (7) eight to ten maxillary teeth; (8) generally three gular scale rows; (9) generally three preventrals; (10) 149–170 ventrals in females, 136–153 in males; (11) 15–27 subcaudals in females, 20–32 in males; (12) dorsum creamish red with irregular transverse black blotches with white borders in adults; (13) venter immaculate creamish white; (14) moderate body size, with females reaching 600 mm SVL and males 457 mm SVL; (15) tail short in females (6.8–11.7% SVL), moderate to long (10.0–16.5% SVL) in males; (16) hemipenis slightly or moderate bilobed, semicapitate, and semicalyculate [Passos et al. 2010]. 
CommentSynonymy mostly after PASSOS et al. 2010. Has been previously considered as a synonym of Atractus maculatus (e.g. BOULENGER 1894).

Similar species: A. triherurus (for examples of misidentifications see Passos et al. 2022). 
  • Amaral, A. 1978. Serpentes do Brasil, 2nd ed. Melhoramentos/Universidaede de Sao Paulo, 246 pp.
  • BARBO, F. E.; MARQUES, O. A. V. & SAWAYA, R. J. 2011. Diversity, Natural History and Distribution of Snakes in the Municipality of São Paulo. South American J. Herp. 6: 135-160
  • Boulenger, George A. 1894. Catalogue of the snakes in the British Museum (Natural History). Volume II., Containing the Conclusion of the Colubridæ Aglyphæ. British Mus. (Nat. Hist.), London, xi, 382 pp. - get paper here
  • Cacciali, P.; Villalba, R. & Yanosky, A.A. 2007. A NEW SPECIES OF ATRACTUS (SERPENTES:COLUBRIDAE: DIPSADINAE) FROM THE ATLANTIC FOREST OF ALTO PARANÁ, PARAGUAY. South American J. Herp. 2 (2): 83-88 - get paper here
  • CARVALHO SIQUEIRA, LUCAS HENRIQUE; JADE LIMA-SANTOS & KARINA MARIA PEREIRA SILVA. 2022. Reproductive strategies of the semifossorial snake Atractus zebrinus from the Atlantic Forest. Cuadernos de Herpetología 36(1): 33–45. - get paper here
  • CONDEZ, T. H; SAWAYA, R. J. & DIXO, M. 2009. Herpetofauna dos remanescentes de Mata Atlântica da região de Tapiraí e Piedade, SP, sudeste do Brasil. Biota Neotropica 9: 1-29
  • Fernandes, R., E.M.X. Freire & G. Puorto. 2000. Geographic Variation of the Brazilian Atlantic Rain Forest Snake Atractus maculatus (Günther, 1858) with the revalidation of Rhabdosoma zebrinum Jan, 1862 (Serpentes: Colubridae). Bol. Mus. Nacional, 419: 1-8 - get paper here
  • Gonzalez R. C. et al. 2020. Lista dos Nomes Populares dos Répteis no Brasil – Primeira Versão. Herpetologia Brasileira 9 (2): 121 – 214 - get paper here
  • Günther, A. 1858. Catalogue of Colubrine snakes of the British Museum. London, I - XVI, 1 - 281 - get paper here
  • Jan, G. 1862. Enumerazione sistematico delle specie d'ofidi del gruppo Calamaridae. Arch. Zool., Anat. Fisiol., 2: 1-76. - get paper here
  • Lema, Th. de 1994. Lista comentada dos répteis occorentes nor Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Comun. Mus. Cienc. Tecnol. PUCRS, Sér. Zool., Porto Alegre 7: 41-150
  • MARQUES, O. A. V.; PEREIRA, D. N.; BARBO, F.E.; GERMANO, V.J. & SAWAYA, R. J. 2009. Os Répteis do Município de São Paulo: diversidade e ecologia da fauna pretérita e atual. Biota Neotropica 9: 1-12 - get paper here
  • Menezes FA, Abegg AD, Silva BR, Franco FL, Feio RN 2018. Composition and natural history of the snakes from the Parque Estadual da Serra do Papagaio, southern Minas Gerais, Serra da Mantiqueira, Brazil. ZooKeys 797: 117-160 - get paper here
  • Moura-Leite, Julio Cesar de; Abrahão-Morato, Sérgio Augusto;Silveira-Bérnils, Renato 1996. New records of reptiles from the State of Paraná, Brazil. Herpetological Review 27 (4): 216-217 - get paper here
  • Nogueira, Cristiano C.; Antonio J.S. Argôlo, Vanesa Arzamendia, Josué A. Azevedo, Fausto E. Barbo, Renato S. Bérnils, Bruna E. Bolochio, Marcio Borges-Martins, Marcela Brasil-Godinho, Henrique Braz, Marcus A. Buononato, Diego F. Cisneros-Heredia, 2019. Atlas of Brazilian snakes: verified point-locality maps to mitigate the Wallacean shortfall in a megadiverse snake fauna. South American J. Herp. 14 (Special Issue 1):1-274 - get paper here
  • Oliveira, Jane C.F.; Rodrigo Castellari Gonzalez; Paulo Passos; Davor Vrcibradic & Carlos Frederico Duarte Rocha 2020. Non-Avian Reptiles of the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: status of knowledge and commented list. Pap. Avulsos Zool. 60: e20206024 - get paper here
  • PASSOS P, MELO-SAMPAIO PR, RAMOS LO, GRAZZIOTIN FG, FOUQUET A & TORRES-CARVAJAL O. 2022. When the tail shakes the snake: phylogenetic affinities and morphology of Atractus badius (Serpentes: Dipsadidae), reveals some current pitfalls on the snake’s genomic age. An Acad Bras Cienc 94: e20191254 - get paper here
  • Passos, P., Dobiey, M., & Venegas, P. J. 2010. Variation and natural history notes on giant groundsnake, Atractus gigas (Serpentes: Dipsadidae). South American J. Herp. 5 (2): 73-82 - get paper here
  • Passos, P., R. Fernandes and Borges-Nojosa, D.M. 2007. A New Species of Atractus (Serpentes: Dipsadinae) from a Relictual Forest in Northeastern Brazil. Copeia 2007 (4): 788–797 - get paper here
  • Passos, P., R. Fernandes and N. Zanella 2005. A new species of Atractus (Serpentes: Colubridae) from Southern Brazil. Herpetologica 61 (2): 209-218 - get paper here
  • Passos, P.; Fernandes, R.; Bernils, R.S. & Moura-Leite, J.C. de 2010. Taxonomic revision of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest Atractus (Reptilia: Serpentes: Dipsadidae). Zootaxa 2364: 1–63 - get paper here
  • Roncolatto-Ortiz, Flora; Herbert Serafim, Angelita Pereira Rodrigues, Arthur Diesel Abegg, Francisco Luis Franco 2017. Snakes from Municipality of São José do Barreiro, State of São Paulo, Brazil. Herpetology Notes 10: 479-486 - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
  • Zaher, Hussam; Fausto Erritto BarboI; Paola Sanchez Martínez; Cristiano Nogueira; Miguel Trefaut Rodrigues; Ricardo Jannini Sawaya 2011. Répteis do Estado de São Paulo: conhecimento atual e perspectivas. Biota Neotropica, 11 (1): 1–15. - get paper here
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