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Azemiops feae BOULENGER, 1888

IUCN Red List - Azemiops feae - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaViperidae, Azemiopinae, Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Common NamesE: Fea Viper, Black-headed Burmese viper
G: Fea-Viper
Chinese: 黑头蝰 
SynonymAzemiops feae BOULENGER 1888: 602
Azemiops feae — SMITH 1943: 480
Azemiops feae — WELCH 1994: 27
Azemiops feae — MCDIARMID, CAMPBELL & TOURÉ 1999: 230
Azemiops feae — NGUYEN et al. 2009
Azemiops feae — WALLACH et al. 2014: 87 
DistributionN Myanmar (= Burma), N Vietnam
S/C China (from W Yunnan and S Shaanxi east to Zhejiang, south to Guangxi; Kweichow, Sichuan, Fujien, Jiangxi, Guangdong), SE Tibet. Elevation 600-1500 m.

Type locality: Kakhyen Hills, Burma (24°35’ N 97°25’ E)  
TypesHolotype: MSNG 30891 (Genova), also given as MSNM 30891 (Milano) 
DiagnosisDiagnosis (genus): presence of the choanal process on the palatine, oviparity, large scales on the head and smooth dorsal scales (Zug et al., 2001; Orlov et al., 2002; Mallow et al., 2003; Orlov et al., 2013, Snetkov & Orlov 2017). 

Type species: Azemiops feae Boulenger, 1888 is the type species of the genus Azemiops Boulenger, 1888. The subfamily was established by LIEM et al. 171.

Genome: see Myers et al. 2022. 
EtymologyNamed after Leonardo Fea, naturalist in Genoa. 
  • Beolens, Bo; Michael Watkins, and Michael Grayson 2011. The Eponym Dictionary of Reptiles. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, USA - get paper here
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1888. Exhibition of, and remarks upon, a new genus of snakes, Azemiops feae. Proc. Zool. Soc. London 1888: 266 - get paper here
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1896. Catalogue of the snakes in the British Museum, Vol. 3. London (Taylor & Francis), xiv + 727 pp. - get paper here
  • Boulenger, GEORGE A. 1888. An account of the Reptilia obtained in Burma, north of Tenasserim, by M. L. Fea, of the Genova Civic Museum. Ann. Mus. Civ. Stor. Nat. Genova, ser. 2, 6: 593-604 - get paper here
  • Boulenger, George A. 1890. The Fauna of British India, Including Ceylon and Burma. Reptilia and Batrachia. Taylor & Francis, London, xviii, 541 pp. - get paper here
  • Capocaccia, L. 1961. Catalogo dei tipi di Rettili del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova [MSNG]. Ann. Mus. Civ. Stor. Nat. Giacomo Doria 72: 86-111 - get paper here
  • Das, I. 2012. A Naturalist's Guide to the Snakes of South-East Asia: Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand, Myanmar, Borneo, Sumatra, Java and Bali. Oxford J, ohn Beaufoy Publishing - get paper here
  • Doria, Giuliano 2010. La collezione erpetologica del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale “G. Doria” di Genova. The herpetological collection of the Museo Civico di Storia Naturale “G. Doria” of Genoa. [type catalogue] Museologia Scientifica Memorie 2010 (5): 62-68
  • Dowling, H.G., & Jenner, J.V. 1988. Snakes of Burma: checklist of reported species and bibliography. Smithsonian Herp. Inf. Serv. (76): 19 pp. - get paper here
  • Gower, D.; Garrett, K. & Stafford, P. 2012. Snakes. Firefly Books, Buffalo, NY,<br />144 p..
  • Kardong, Kenneth V. 1986. Observations on live Azemiops feae, Fea's viper. Herpetological Review 17 (4): 81-82 - get paper here
  • Knight, Alec;Mindell, David 1993. Substitution bias, weighting of DNA sequence evolution, and the phylogenetic position of Fea's viper [Azemiops feae]. Systematic Biology 42 (1): 18-31 - get paper here
  • Leviton, Alan E.; Guinevere O.U. Wogan; Michelle S. Koo; George R. Zug; Rhonda S. Lucas and Jens V. Vindum 2003. The Dangerously Venomous Snakes of Myanmar Illustrated Checklist with Keys. Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. 54 (24): 407–462 - get paper here
  • Liem, K. F., H. Marx, G. B. Rabb 1971. The viperid snake Azemiops: its comparative cephalic anatomy and phylogenetic position in relation to Viperinae and Crotalinae. Fieldiana Zoology, 59 (2):65-126 - get paper here
  • Lillywhite, Harvey B. 2014. How Snakes Work: Structure, Function and Behavior of the World's Snakes. Oxford University Press, New York, 256 pp
  • Mallow, D. Ludwig, D. & Nilson, G. 2003. True Vipers: Natural History and Toxinology of Old World Vipers. Krieger, Malabar, Florida, 410 pp. [review in HR 35: 200, Reptilia 35: 74]
  • McDiarmid, R.W.; Campbell, J.A. & Touré,T.A. 1999. Snake species of the world. Vol. 1. [type catalogue] Herpetologists’ League, 511 pp.
  • MYERS, EDWARD A.; JASON L. STRICKLAND, RHETT M. RAUTSAW, ANDREW J. MASON, TRISTAN D. SCHRAMER, GUNNAR S. NYSTROM, MICHAEL P. HOGAN, SHIBU YOOSEPH, DARIN R. ROKYTA & CHRISTOPHER L. PARKINSON. 2022. De Novo Genome Assembly Highlights the Role of Lineage-Specific Gene Duplications in the Evolution of Venom in Fea’s Viper (Azemiops feae). Genome Biology and Evolution 14(7): evac082. - get paper here
  • Nguyen, S.V., Ho, C.T. and Nguyen, T.Q. 2009. Herpetofauna of Vietnam. Chimaira, Frankfurt, 768 pp.
  • Orlov, N. L. 1995. Rare snakes of the mountainous forests of northern Indochina. Russ. J. Herpetol. 2 (2): 179-183 - get paper here
  • Orlov, N. L. & Ryabov, S. A. 2002. Zur Kenntnis von Fea’s Viper, Azemiops feae BOULENGER 1888. Sauria 24 (1): 17-22 - get paper here
  • Orlov, N. L., S. A. Ryabov, N. Van Sang and N. Q. Truong 2003. New records and data on the poorly known snakes of Vietnam. Russ. J. Herpetol. 10: 217-240 - get paper here
  • Orlov, N.; Ananjeva, A.; Ryabov, S. & Rao, D.-Q. 2003. Venomous snakes in Southern China. Reptilia (GB) (31): 22-29 - get paper here
  • Orlov, N.; Ananjeva, A.; Ryabov, S. & Rao, D.-Q. 2003. Die Giftschlangen Südchinas. Reptilia (Münster) 8 (44): 30-36 - get paper here
  • Orlov, N.; Ananjeva, N.; Barabanov, A.; Ryabov, S. & Khalikov, R. 2002. Diversity of vipers (Azemiopinae, Crotalinae) in East, Southeast, and South Asia: annotated checklist and natural history data (Reptilia: Squamata: Serpentes: Viperidae). Faun. Abh. Mus. Tierk. Dresden 23: 177-218
  • Orlov, Nikolai L. 1997. Viperid snakes (Viperidae Bonaparte, 1840) of Tam-Dao Mountain Ridge (Vinh-Phu and Bac-Thai Provinces, Vietnam). Russ. J. Herpetol. 4 (1): 64-74 - get paper here
  • Orlov, Nikolai L.; Sergei A. Ryabov, Tao Thien Nguyen 2013. On the Taxonomy and the Distribution of Snakes of the Genus Azemiops Boulenger, 1888: Description of a New Species. Russ. J. Herpetol. 20 (2): 110-128 [erratum in RJH 24 (2)] - get paper here
  • O’Shea, M. 2018. The Book of Snakes. Ivy Press / Quarto Publishing, London, - get paper here
  • Phelps, T. 2010. Old World Vipers. Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt, 558 pp. [critical review in Sauria 33 (3): 19 and HR 43: 503]
  • Preißler, D. 2004. Alles über Schlangen. Draco 5 (17): 4-21 - get paper here
  • Seung Hoon, Cha 2012. Snake, the world most beautifull curve [in Korean]. Hownext, 304 pp. [ISBN 978-89-965656-7-3] - get paper here
  • Smith, M.A. 1943. The Fauna of British India, Ceylon and Burma, Including the Whole of the Indo-Chinese Sub-Region. Reptilia and Amphibia. 3 (Serpentes). Taylor and Francis, London. 583 pp.
  • Snetkov, P. B.; N. L. Orlov 2017. Phylogenetic Analysis of Old World Viperid Snakes (Serpentes, Viperidae) Based on Skeletal Morphology. Russ. J. Herpetol. 24 (1): 22-34 - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
  • Wang K, Lyu ZT, Wang J, Qi S, Che J 2022. Updated Checklist and Zoogeographic Division of the Reptilian Fauna of Yunnan Province, China. Biodiversity Science 30 (4): 21326, 1–31 - get paper here
  • Wang, Kai; Jinlong Ren, Hongman Chen, Zhitong Lyu, Xianguang Guo Ke Jiang, Jinmin Chen, Jiatang Li, Peng Guo, Yingyong Wang, Jing Che 2020. The updated checklists of amphibians and reptiles of China. Biodiversity Science 28 (2): 189-218 - get paper here
  • ZHANG Liang, XIAO Rong-gao, YU Bao-cheng, LUO Jian 2012. Discovery and Current Distribution of Azemiops feae in Guangdong. Sichuan Journal of Zoology 31 (4) - get paper here
  • Zhao, E.M. 2006. The snakes of China [in Chinese]. Hefei, China, Anhui Sience & Technology Publ. House, Vol. I, 372 pp., Vol. II (color plates), 280 pp.
  • Zhao,E. & Adler,K. 1993. Herpetology of China. SSAR, Oxford/Ohio, 1-522
  • Zug,G.R.; Vitt, L.J. & Caldwell, J.P. 2001. Herpetology, 2nd ed. Academic Press San Diego, London, [...]XIV + 630 pp.
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