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Bachia heteropa (WIEGMANN, 1856)

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Higher TaxaGymnophthalmidae (Cercosaurinae, Bachiinae), Sauria, Gymnophthalmoidea, Squamata (lizards) 
SubspeciesBachia heteropa heteropa (WIEGMANN in LICHTENSTEIN 1856)
Bachia heteropa trinitatis BARBOUR 1914
Bachia heteropa alleni (BARBOUR 1914)
Bachia heteropa lineata BOULENGER 1903
Bachia heteropa marcelae DONOSO-BARROS 1968 
Common NamesE: LaGuaira Bachia, Worm lizard
S: Falsa vibora común, lagartija lombriz 
SynonymChalcides heteropus WIEGMANN in LICHTENSTEIN 1856: 17
Bachia heteropus — GARMAN 1892: 97
Bachia lineata BOULENGER 1903: 432
Scolecosaurus trinitatis BARBOUR 1914: 316
Bachia heteropa — RUTHVEN 1925: 105
Scolecosaurus trinitatis — JOHNSON 1946
Bachia marcelae DONOSO-BARROS & GARRIDO 1964: 3
Bachia lineata marcelae — DONOSO-BARROS 1968
Bachia heteropus — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1991: 366
Bachia heteropus — BAUER & GÜNTHER 1994
Bachia heteropa — GORZULA & SEÑARIS 1999
Bachia heteropa marcelae — JOHN et al. 2012
Bachia heteropa — JOHN et al. 2012

Bachia heteropa alleni (BARBOUR 1914)
Brachypus cuvieri FITZINGER 1826
Chalcides Cuvieri — DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1839: 453
Chalcis (Brachypus) cuvieri — WAGLER 1830: 196
Scolcecosaurus cuvieri — DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1839
Scolecosaurus cuvieri — BOULENGER 1885: 416
Scolecosaurus alleni BARBOUR 1914: 315
Scolecosaurus alleni parviceps BARBOUR 1933
Scolecosaurus cuvieri — BRONGERSMA 1946
Bachia cuvieri — VANZOLINI 1961: 204
Bachia cuvieri — PETERS & DONOSO-BARROS 1970: 80
Bachia alleni — MERTENS 1972
Bachia heteropa alleni — JOHN et al. 2012
Bachia alleni — POWELL & HENDERSON 2017

Bachia heteropa lineata BOULENGER 1903
Bachia anomala ROUX 1929: 31 (fide BURT & BURT 1933)
Bachia anomala — BRONGERSMA 1946
Bachia lineata — DONOSO-BARROS 1968
Bachia heteropa lineata — MIJARES-URRUTIA & ARENDS 1999
Bachia heteropa lineata — MARKEZICH 2002
Bachia heteropa lineata — JOHN et al. 2012

Bachia heteropa trinitatis BARBOUR 1914
Scolecosaurus trinitatis BARBOUR 1914: 316
Scolecosaurus trinitatis — BRONGERSMA 1946
Scolecosaurus trinitatis — LYNN 1959
Bachia alleni trinitatis — DONOSO-BARROS 1968
Bachia heteropa trinitatis — JOHN et al. 2012 
DistributionN Venezuela (e.g. Falcon, Mérida [Esqueda & La Marca 1999], Carabobo, Yaracuy), Trinidad, Tobago, Isla Margarita, Grenada Bank
Colombia [Castro,F. (pers. comm.)]

alleni: Grenada and Grenadines; also Tobago. Type locality: “St. George’s, Grenada.”

trinitatis: Trinidad; Type locality: Caparo, Trinidad.

cuvieri: Colombia ?, Brazil ?; Type locality: unknown (fide PETERS & DONOSO-BARROS 1970). Type lost (formerly Naturhistorisches Museum Wien).

marcelae: Venezuela; Type locality: “Bosque tropical La Luz, Edo. Barinas, Venezuela.”

lineata: Venezuela (Distrito Federal, Caracas); Type locality: “Duaca, Venezuela.”

Type locality: La Guaira, Venezuela.  
TypesLectotype: ZMB 1173
Holotype: BMNH 1962.7.29.90 [lineata]
Holotype: MCZ 7793 [alleni]
Holotype: NHMB [anomala]
Holotype: MCZ 947, adult, A. B. Carr, collector [trinitatis]
Holotype: unlocated (was: DB 6312061, i.e. private collection of Donoso-Barros, collected on 12 December 1963 by R. Donoso-Barros and A. Garrido [marcelae] 
CommentSynonymy mostly that of Dixon (1973). SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1991 recognize only Bachia heteropa alleni (BARBOUR 1914) as subspecies (besides the nominate form). BAUER & GÜNTHER 1994 list Bachia alleni trinitatis as valid combination. Thomas (1965) considered B. trinitatis to be a subspecies of B. alleni. Later, Donoso-Barros (1968) considered B. marcelae to be a subspecies of B. lineata, retaining B. heteropa and B. alleni as separate species. However, Dixon (1973) synonymized B. marcelae with B. heteropa. However, John et al. 2012 recognized marcelae as valid.

Distribution (cuvieri): Distribution in Brazil according to DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1839. However, at that time “Colombie” included what is now Venezuela, Colombia, Panama, Ecuador, Peru and Bolivia. Bachia cuvieri might be a synonym of Scolecosaurus alleni = Bachia heteropa alleni (Barbour 1933 and Dixon 1973). See map in Ribeiro-Júnior et al. 2016: 153 (Fig. 4).

Subspecies: Intermediate specimens between B. h. heteropa and B. h. trinitatis are known from eastern Venezuela but intermediates between B. h. lineata and B. h. heteropa are unknown although both subspecies have been recorded from nearby areas (B. h. heteropa from la Guaira, Vargas State and B. h. lineata from Distrito Federal, Caracas) [RIVAS et al. 2012].

NCBI taxon ID: 371684 [trinitatis]
NCBI taxon ID: 371694 [alleni] 
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