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Baliodryas steinbachi (BOULENGER, 1905)

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Higher TaxaColubridae (Dipsadinae), Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Common Names 
SynonymRhadinaea Steinbachi BOULENGER 1905: 454
Aporophis melanocephalus GRIFFIN 1915: 171
Liophis steinbachi — AMARAL 1929: 174
Liophis steinbachi — VANZOLINI in PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1986: 16
Erythrolamprus steinbachi — GRAZZIOTIN et al. 2012
Rhadinaea steinbachi — WALLACH et al. 2014: 834
Eutrachelophis steinbachi — MYERS & MCDOWELL 2014
Baliodryas steinbachi — ZAHER & PRUDENTE 2019 
DistributionSE Bolivia, SW Brazil (Mato Grosso)

Type locality: Provincia Sara, Dep. Santa Cruz de la Sierra, Bolivia  
TypesLectotype: BMNH 1946.1.21.62 (designated by MYERS & MCDOWELL 2014). Paralectotype: BMNH 1946.1.21.63 
DiagnosisDiagnosis (genus). This new genus can be distinguished from other genera of the Dipsadidae by the presence of deeply divided hemipenial lobes with lobular projections that expand beyond the tip of the sulci, the latter ending on the middle of the lobes and opening at the base of a small vestigial apical disk (Zaher & Prudente 2019).

Diagnosis: Baliodryas steinbachi is distinguished from all other species by the following combination of morphological characters: dorsal scales smooth, 15-15-15 scale rows; 134-140 ventrals; 66-81 subcaudals; hemipenis deepely bilobed; long lobes with a small nude area considered to be a remnant of the apical disks; intrasulcar region with small spines and two rows of larger spines; asulcate side with two large spines extend nearly to the proximal end of the hemipenis body; conspicuous pair of ocellar markings on the nape and a pair of oblique pale markings touching the upper anterior and upper posterior edges of the eye; dark head color extends onto the neck as unbroken dorsal and lateral stripes; and 24 maxillary teeth subequal in size and recurved, followed by diastema and two ungrooved fangs (Zaher & Prudente 2019).

Comparison. Baliodryas steinbachi differs from Eutrachelophis papilio and Eu. bassleri by hemipenis deeply bifurcate, with long lobes (vs. hemipenis slightly bilobed with short lobes), apical disks elliptical and small (vs. apical disks expanded and fused in the middle region), dark head color with two pairs of oblique markings touching the upper anterior and upper posterior edges of the eyes (vs. preocular region and top of the head brown, without markings), and lower part of the supralabials white and underside of the head white (vs. lower part of supralabials white with a triangular wedge just behind eyes). Differs from Eu. papilio by having one pair of white ocelli not fused on the dorsum (vs. white butterfly-shaped ocellus on the nape), and from Eu. bassleri by presence of conspicuous lateral line of pale dashes or dots on scale row 6 (vs. barely discernible lateral line of white dashes or dots along scale row 4) (Zaher & Prudente 2019). 
CommentSynonymy that of PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970. Incertae sedis fide DIXON 1980.

Type species: Rhadinaea Steinbachi BOULENGER 1905: 454 is the type species of the genus Baliodryas ZAHER & PRUDENTE 2019.

Abundance: only known from 14 specimens (Moraes et al.2021). 
EtymologyNamed after Dr. Jose Steinbach (1856-1929), a botanical and zoological collector in Argentina and Bolivia for the Field Museum.

The genus name Baliodryas is a masculine noun from the Greek βαλιóς, spotted, dappled, and δρυας, a kind of snake (Heitsch, 1963; Leigh, 2016). 
  • Amaral,A. do 1930. Estudos sobre ophidios neotropicos XVIII. Lista remissiva dos ophidios da região neotropica. Mem. Inst. Butantan 4: 126-271 [1929] - get paper here
  • Beolens, Bo; Michael Watkins, and Michael Grayson 2011. The Eponym Dictionary of Reptiles. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, USA - get paper here
  • Boulenger, George A. 1905. Descriptions of new snakes in the collection of the British Museum. Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (7) 15 (89): 453-456 - get paper here
  • Dixon, J. R. 1980. The neotropical colubrid snake genus Liophis. The generic concept. Milwaukee Public Museum Contributions in Biology and Geology 31: 1-40 - get paper here
  • Grazziotin, Felipe G.; Hussam Zaher, Robert W. Murphy, Gustavo Scrocchi, Marco A. Benavides, Ya-Ping Zhang and Sandro L. Bonatto 2012. Molecular phylogeny of the New World Dipsadidae (Serpentes: Colubroidea): a reappraisal. Cladistics DOI: 10.1111/j.1096-0031.2012.00393.x - get paper here
  • Griffin, L.F. 1916. A catalog of the Ophidia from South America at present (June 1916) contained in the Carnegie Museum with descriptions of some new species. Mem. Carnegie Mus. 7 (3) [1915]: 163-228 - get paper here
  • Heitsch, E. 1963. Die Griechischen Dichterfragmente der Römischen Kaiserzeit. Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen
  • Moraes, Leandro J C L, Omar M Entiauspe-Neto, Rafael de Fraga, Igor Y Fernandes, and Fernanda P Werneck. 2021. Systematics of the Rare Amazonian Genus Eutrachelophis (Serpentes: Dipsadidae), with an Emended Diagnosis for Eutrachelophis Papilio. Zoologischer Anzeiger 295: 191–204 - get paper here
  • Myers, Charles W. and Samuel B. McDowell 2014. New Taxa and Cryptic Species of Neotropical Snakes (Xenodontinae), with Commentary on Hemipenes as Generic and Specific Characters. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 385 (1) : 1-112. - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
  • Zaher, Hussam and Ana L.C. Prudente 2019. The enigmatic Amazonian genus Eutrachelophis: morphological evidence and description of new taxa (Serpentes: Dipsadidae: Xenodontini). Amphibia-Reptilia 41: 215-231 - get paper here
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