You are here » home advanced search Bitis arietans

Bitis arietans (MERREM, 1820)

Find more photos by Google images search: Google images

Higher TaxaViperidae, Viperinae, Serpentes (snakes) 
SubspeciesBitis arietans arietans (MERREM 1820)
Bitis arietans somalica PARKER 1949 
Common NamesE: Puff Adder
G: Gemeine Puffotter 
SynonymBitis arietans arietans (MERREM 1820)
Vipera (Echidna) arietans MERREM 1820: 152
Cobra lachesis LAURENTI 1768
Cobra clotho LAURENTI 1768
Echidna arietans — DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1854: 1425
Bitis arietans — FISCHER 1884: 17
Bitis arietans — SCHMIDT 1923: 140
Cobra lachesis — MERTENS 1938
Bitis lachesis somalica PARKER 1949: 101
Bitis arietans — FITZSIMONS & BRAIN 1958
Bitis lachesis — MENZIES 1966
Bitis arietans — HARDING & WELCH 1980
Bitis arietans arietans — AUERBACH 1987: 206
Bitis arietans arietans — BROADLEY & HOWELL 1991: 23
Bitis (Bitis) arietans — LENK et al. 1999
Bitis arietans — MCDIARMID, CAMPBELL & TOURÉ 1999: 358
Bitis arietans — LARGEN & SPAWLS 2010: 612

Bitis arietans somalica PARKER 1949
Bitis lachesis somalica — CAPOCACCIA 1955
Bitis arietans somalica — LANZA 1988
Bitis arietans somalica — DOBIEY & VOGEL 2007 
DistributionRepublic of South Africa, Swaziland, Namibia, Botswana, Zimbabwe, Mozambique, Malawi, Zambia, Angola, Tanzania, Burundi, Rwanda, Uganda, Kenya, Democratic Republic of the Congo (Zaire; except in the Center), Congo (Brazzaville), Gabon, Burkina Faso, Equatorial Guinea, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Niger, Nigeria, Benin, Togo, Ghana, Ivory Coast, Liberia, Sierra Leone, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Somalia,
Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gambia, Senegal, Mauritania, Western Sahara, Mali, Sudan [abukhalil.mohamed, pers. comm.],
Algeria, Morocco, SW Saudi Arabia, Oman

somalica: Somalia, N Kenya

Type locality: Cape of Good Hope = South Africa. Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
TypesTypes: unlocated; Merrem listed several plates in Seba (1735) in a footnote, but without details. 
CommentVenomous! Bitis arietans peghullae Stewart 1973 is rejected as it has not been published regularly (BRANCH 1999).

Reproduction: viviparous. 
References
  • ALEXANDER, G.J. & KRUGER, C. 2009. Bitis a. arietans (Merrem, 1820) WINTER MATING ACTIVITY. Afr. Herp News (50): 30-33
  • ALEXANDER, G.J. & MARITZ, B. 2009. Bitis a. arietans (Merrem, 1820) Partial Resistance to Naja venom. Afr. Herp News (50): 34-36
  • Arnold E N 1980. The scientific results of the Oman flora and fauna survey 1977 (Dhofar). The reptiles and amphibians of Dhofar, southern Arabia. JOURNAL OF OMAN STUDIES SPECIAL REPORT (No. 2): 273-332 - get paper here
  • Auerbach,R.D. 1987. The Amphibians and Reptiles of Botswana. Mokwepa Consultants, Botswana, 295 pp.
  • Barnett, Linda K. 2001. The herpetofauna of Abuko Nature Reserve, the Gambia. Herpetological Bulletin (77):5-1
  • Barnett, Linda K. & Emms, Craig 2005. Common reptiles of The Gambia. Rare Repro, Hailsham, East Sussex, 24 pp.
  • Barts, M. 2008. Observation of a combat dance in Bitis arietans arietans. Sauria 30 (3): 39-42 - get paper here
  • Bauer, A.M., and Branch, W.R. 2003. The herpetofauna of the Richtersveld National Park, Northern Cape Province, Republic of South Africa. Herpetological Natural History 8: 111-160 [2001]
  • Bauer, Aaron M.; Branch, William R. & Haacke, Wulf D. 1993. The herpetofauna of the Kamanjab area and adjacent Damaraland, Namibia. Madoqua (Windhoek), 18 (2): 117-145.
  • Böhme, Wolfgang, Mark-Oliver Rödel, Christian Brede & Philipp Wagner 2011. The reptiles (Testudines, Squamata, Crocodylia) of the forested southeast of the Republic Guinea (Guinée forestière), wit a country-wide checklist. Bonn zoological Bulletin 60 (1): 35-61 - get paper here
  • Boulenger, George A. 1891. Catalogue of the reptiles and batrachians of Barbary (Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia), based chiefly upon the notes and collections made in 1880-1884 by M. Fernand Lataste. Tr. Zool. Soc. 13: 93-164
  • Boycott, R.C. 1992. An Annotated Checklist of the Amphibians and Reptiles of Swaziland. The Conservation Trust of Swaziland, 1992; online at http://www.sntc.org.sz/checklst/sdreptam.html.
  • Branch, W.R. 2008. PROPOSED KALUKUNDI MINE (DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO) - TERRESTRIAL FAUNA. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT REPORT (FINAL REPORT). A specialist report for Envirolution Consulting (Pty) Ltd., 83 pp.
  • Branch, W.R.; Rödel, M.-O. & Marais, J. 2005. Herpetological survey of the Niassa Game Reserve, northern Mozambique - Part I: Reptiles. Salamandra 41 (4): 195-214 - get paper here
  • Branch, William R. 1993. A Photographic Guide to Snakes and Other Reptiles of Southern Africa. Cape Town: Struik Publishers, 144 S.
  • Branch, William R. 1999. Bitis arietans peghullae Stewart 1973 (Serpentes: Viperidae): a valid race of puff adder?. African Journal of Herpetology 48 (1&2):15-19 - get paper here
  • Broadley, D. G. & HOWELL, K. M. 1991. A check list of the reptiles of Tanzania, with synoptic keys. Syntarsus 1: 1—70
  • Broadley, D. G. and Parker, R. H. 1976. Natural hybridization between the puff adder and gaboon viper in Zululand (Serpentes: Viperidae). Durban Museum Novitates 11, 77-83
  • Broadley, D.G. 1959. The herpetology of Southern Rhodesia. Part I--the snakes. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard 120 (1): 1-100 [reprint 1972] - get paper here
  • Broadley, D.G. 1991. The Herpetofauna of Northern Mwinilunga Distr., Northw. Zambia. Arnoldia Zimbabwe 9 (37): 519-538
  • Broadley, D.G. 1994. A collection of snakes from eastern Sudan, with the description of a new species of Telescopus Wagler, 1830 (Reptilia: Ophidia). Journal of African Zoology 108 (2): 201-208.
  • Broadley, D.G.; Doria, C.T. & Wigge, J. 2003. Snakes of Zambia. An Atlas and Field Guide. Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt, 280 pp. [review in Sauria 26 (3): 21]
  • Broadley, Donald G. and F. P. D. Cotterill. 2004. The reptiles of southeast Katanga, an overlooked 'hot spot'. [Congo]. African Journal of Herpetology 53 (1): 35-61. - get paper here
  • Broadley,D.G. 1962. On some reptile collections from the North-Western and North-Eastern Districts of Southern Rhodesia 1958-1961, with descriptions of four new lizards. Occ. Pap. Nat. Mus. South. Rhodesia 26 (B): 787-843
  • Capocaccia L. 1955. Contributo allo studio della distribuzione geografica di Bitis lachesis somalica Parker (Ophidia, Viperidae). Doriana, Vol. II, N. 60: 1-7. (Supp. agli Ann. Mus. Civ. Stor. Nat. G. Doria).
  • Chifundera, K. 1990. Snakes of Zaire and their bites. Afr. Stud. Monogr. (Kyoto) 10(3): 137-157.
  • Chirio, L. 2009. Inventaire des reptiles de la région de la Réserve de Biosphère Transfrontalière du W (Niger/Bénin/Burkina Faso: Afrique de l’Ouest). [Herpetological survey of the W Transfrontier Biosphere Reserve area (Niger/Benin/Burkina Faso: West Africa]. Bull. Soc. Herp. France (132): 13-41 - get paper here
  • Chirio, L. & Lebreton, M. 2007. Atlas des reptiles du Cameroun. MNHN, IRD, Paris 688 pp.
  • Corkill, N. L. and Cochrane, J. A. 1966. The snakes of the Arabian Peninsula and Socotra. J. Bombay nat. Hist. Soc. 62 (3): 475-506 (1965)
  • Dobiey, M. & Vogel, G. 2007. Venomous Snakes of Africa/Giftschlangen Afrikas. Terralog 15, Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt am Main, 150 pp.
  • Duméril, A. M. C., BIBRON, G. & DUMÉRIL, A. H. A., 1854. Erpétologie générale ou histoire naturelle complète des reptiles. Tome septième. Deuxième partie, comprenant l'histoire des serpents venimeux. Paris, Librairie Encyclopédique de Roret: i-xii + 781-1536 - get paper here
  • Egan, D. 2007. Snakes of Arabia. Motivate Publishing, Dubai, 208 pp.
  • Fischer, J. G. 1884. Über einige afrikanische Reptilien, Amphibien und Fische des Naturhistorischen Museums I. Über die von Herrn Dr. G.A. Fischer in Massai Gebiete (Ost Afrika) auf seiner in Veranlassung der geographischen Gesellschaft in Hamburg unternommenen Expeditio Jahrb. Hamburg Wiss. Anst. 1: 1-32 - get paper here
  • Fitzsimons, V.F.M.; Brain, C.K. 1958. A Short account of the Reptiles of the Kalahari Gemsbok National Park. Koedoe, 1(1): 99-104 - get paper here
  • Geniez, P.; Mateo, J.A.; Geniez, M. & Pether, J. 2004. The amphibians and reptiles of the Western Sahara (former Spanish Sahara) and adjacent regions. Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt, 228 pp. [reviewed in Reptilia GB 44: 81]
  • Gillespie, S. 1992. Nachzucht der Stripe Phase Puffotter (Bitis arietans Merrem, 1820) in Gefangenschaft. Sauria 14 (4): 35-37
  • Girard, Francis 1998. Bitis arietans (Merrem, 1820); Puff Adder. African Herp News (28): 34
  • Glaudas, Xavier and Graham Alexander. 2014. Bitis arietans (puff adder) foraging behavior. Herpetological Review 45 (1): 139-140
  • Gray, J.E. 1849. Description of a new species of Box Tortoise from Mexico. Proc. Zool. Soc. London 1849: 16-17 - get paper here
  • Herrmann, H.-W.; W.R. Branch 2013. Fifty years of herpetological research in the Namib Desert and Namibia with an updated and annotated species checklist. Journal of Arid Environments 93: 94–115 - get paper here
  • Herrmann, Hans-Werner; Schmitz, Andreas; Herrmann, Patricia A. & Böhme, Wolfgang 2007. Amphibians and reptiles of the Tchabal Mbabo mountains, Adamaoua plateau, Cameroon. Bonner zoologische Beiträge 55 (1/2): 27-35 - get paper here
  • Herrmann,H. W.; Joger,U.; Lenk,P. & Wink,M. 1999. Morphological and molecular phylogenies of viperines: conflicting evidence?. Kaupia (Darmstadt) (8): 21-30 - get paper here
  • Hughes, B. 2013. Snakes of Bénin, West Africa. Bull. Soc. Herp. Fr. 144: 101-159
  • Jackson, Kate; Ange-Ghislain Zassi-Boulou, Lis-Bethy Mavoungou, and Serge Pangou 2007. Amphibians and Reptiles of the LacTélé Community Reserve, Likouala Region, Republic of Congo (Brazzaville). Herp. Cons. Biol. 2 (2): 75-86
  • JACOBSEN, N.H.G. 2009. A contribution to the herpetofauna of the Passendro Area, Central African Republic. Afr. Herp News (47): 2-20
  • Laita, Mark 2013. Serpentine. Abrams and PQ Blackwell, Auckland, New Zealand, 200 unnumbered pages
  • Lanza, B. 1990. Amphibians and reptiles of the Somali Democratic Republic: check list and biogeography. Biogeographia, 14: 407-465 [1988]
  • Largen, M.J.; Spawls, S. 2010. Amphibians and Reptiles of Ethiopia and Eritrea. Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt, 694 pp.
  • Lenk,P.; Herrmann,H. W.; Joger,U. & Wink,M. 1999. Phylogeny and taxonomic subdivision of Bitis (Reptilia: Viperidae) based on molecular evidence. Kaupia (Darmstadt) (8): 31-38 - get paper here
  • Loveridge, Arthur 1929. East African reptiles and amphibians in the United States National Museum. Bull. US Natl. Mus. (151): 1-135 - get paper here
  • Loveridge,A. 1936. African reptiles and amphibians in the Field Museum of Natural History. Zool. Ser. Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Chicago, 22 (1): 1-122 - get paper here
  • MARITZ, B. 2013. Bitis arietans arietans (Merrem, 1820) Predation. African Herp News (59): 21-28
  • McDiarmid,R.W.; Campbell,J.A. & Touré,T.A. 1999. Snake species of the world. Vol. 1. Herpetologists’ League, 511 pp.
  • Menzies, J.I. 1966. The snakes of Sierra Leone. Copeia 1966 (2): 169-179. - get paper here
  • Merrem, B. 1820. Versuch eines Systems der Amphibien I (Tentamen Systematis Amphibiorum). J. C. Kriegeri, Marburg, 191 pp.
  • Mertens, R. 1938. Über eine herpetologische Sammlung aus dem Gebiete des Njarasa-Grabens Ost-Afrikas. Veröffentlichungen aus dem Deutschen Kolonial- und Übersee-Museum in Bremen 2 (1): 1-9 [no page numbers]
  • Meyer, J.A. 2004. Erfolgreiche Nachzucht von Bitis arietans (MERREM 1820). Elaphe 12 (3): 18
  • Nagy, Z. T., D. Adriaens, E. Pauwels, L. Van Hoorebeke, J. Kielgast, C. Kusamba & K. Jackson 2013. 3D reconstruction of fang replacement in the venomous snakes Dendroaspis jamesoni (Elapidae) and Bitis arietans (Viperidae). Salamandra 49 (2): 109-113 - get paper here
  • Padial, J. M. 2006. COMMENTED DISTRIBUTIONAL LIST OF THE REPTILES OF MAURITANIA (WEST AFRICA). Graellsia, 62(2): 159-178
  • Parker,H.W. 1949. The snakes of Somaliland and the Sokotra islands. Zoologische Verhandelingen 6: 1-115 - get paper here
  • Pauwels, O.S.G. & Vande weghe, J.P. 2008. Les reptiles du Gabon. Smithsonian Institution, Washington: 272 pp. - get paper here
  • Phelps, T. 2010. Old World Vipers. Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt, 558 pp. [critical review in Sauria 33 (3): 19 and HR 43: 503]
  • Pietersen, Darren W.<br />Pietersen, Errol W.<br />Haacke, Wulf D. 2013. First herpetological appraisal of the Parque Nacional de Banhine, Gaza Province, southern Mozambique. Annals of the Ditsong National Museum of Natural History 3: 153-163 - get paper here
  • Pitman,C.R.S. 1974. A guide to the snakes of Uganda. Codicote, Wheldon & Wesley, L., 290 pp.
  • Razzetti, E. & Msuya, C.A. 2002. Field guide to the amphibians and reptiles of Arusha National Park (Tanzania). Publ. Ed. Negri Istituto, Oikos, Varese, 84 pp.
  • Rödel,M.O.; Kouadio,K, & Mahsberg,D. 1999. Die Schlangenfauna des Comoé-Nationalparks, Elfenbeinküste: Ergänzungen und Ausblick. Salamandra 35 (3): 165-180
  • Sagredo, Chandra Alexander Krutwik 2013. Die Puffotter (Bitis arietans). Terraria Elaphe 2013 (6): 34-42
  • Schleich,H.H., Kästle,W., Kabisch, K. 1996. Amphibians and Reptiles of North Africa. Koeltz, Koenigstein, 627 pp.
  • Schleicher, Alfred 2012. Terraglobal. Reptilien rund um Haus und Garten. Terraria Elaphe 2012 (3): 38-39 - get paper here
  • Schmidt, K. P. 1923. Contributions to the herpetology of the Belgian Congo based on the collection of the American Museum Congo Expedition, 1909-1915. Part II. Snakes, with field notes by Herbert Lang and James P. Chapin. Bull. Amer. Mus. nat. Hist. 49 (1): 1-146
  • Schönecker, P. 2014. Südafrika. Auf Reptiliensuche entlang der Garden Route. Reptilia (Münster) 19 (105): 80-93
  • Segniagbeto G. H., Trape J. F., David P., Ohler A., Dubois A. & Glitho I. A. 2011. The snake fauna of Togo: systematics, distribution and biogeography, with remarks on selected taxonomic problems. Zoosystema 33 (3): 325-360. DOI: 10.5252/z2011n3a4 - get paper here
  • Sindaco, Roberto; Riccardo Nincheri, Benedetto Lanza 2014. Catalogue of Arabian reptiles in the collections of the “La Specola” Museum, Florence. Scripta Herpetologica. Studies on Amphibians and Reptiles in honour of Benedetto Lanza: pp. 137-164 - get paper here
  • Spawls, S.; Howell, K.; Drewes, R.C. & Ashe, J. 2002. A field guide to the reptiles of East Africa. Academic Press, 543 pp. [reviews in HR 34: 396 and Afr. J. Herp. 51; 147]
  • Sternfeld, R. 1910. Zur Schlangenfauna Deutsch-Südwestafrikas. Mehrere Fälle von Mimikry bei afrikanischen Schlangen. Mitt. zool. Mus. Berlin, 5: 51-60 - get paper here
  • Thieme, U. 2004. Herpetologische Beobachtungen und anderes aus Gambia. Reptilia (Münster) 9 (49): 43-48 [erratum in 9 (6): 17] - get paper here
  • Trape, J.-F. & Mane, Y. 2004. Les serpents des environs de Bandafassi (Sénégal oriental). Bull. Soc. Herp. France 109: 5-34 - get paper here
  • Trape, J.-F. & Mane, Y. 2006. Guide des serpents d’Afrique occidentale. Savane et désert. [Senegal, Gambia, Mauritania, Mali, Burkina Faso, Niger]. IRD Editions, Paris, 226 pp. - get paper here
  • Trape, J.F. & R. ROUX-ESTÈVE 1995. Les serpents du Congo: liste commentée et clé de détermination. Journal of African Zoology 109 (1): 31-50
  • Trape, Jean-François; Mane, Youssouph 2000. Les serpents des environs de Dielmo (Sine-Saloum, Sénégal). Bull. Soc. Herp. France 95: 19-35 - get paper here
  • Ullenbruch, K.; Grell, O.; Böhme, W. 2010. Reptiles from southern Benin, West Africa, with the description of a new Hemidactylus (Gekkonidae), and a country-wide checklist. Bonn Zool. Bull. 57 (1): 31-54 - get paper here
  • van der Kooij, Jeroen 2001. The herpetofauna of the Sultanate of Oman: Part 4: The terrestrial snakes. Podarcis 2 (2): 54-64
  • Venchi, Alberto and Roberto Sindaco 2006. Annotated checklist of the reptiles of the Mediterranean countries, with keys to species identification. Part 2 -Snakes (Reptilia, Serpentes). Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale "G. Doria", Genova, XCVIII: 259-364
  • WITBERG, M. 2012. The herpetofauna of Schaapen Island, Langebaan, South Africa. African Herp News (56): 11-16
  • Zeeb, Sven 2012. Die Wirkung von Schlangengiften auf die Blutgerinnung und ihre Nutzung in der medizinischen Therapie und Diagnostik. Draco 13 (51): 58-66 - get paper here
 
External links  
Is it interesting? Share with others:


Please submit feedback about this entry to the curator