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Bitis caudalis (SMITH, 1839)

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Higher TaxaViperidae, Viperinae, Serpentes (snakes) 
Subspecies 
Common NamesE: Horned Adder
G: Gehörnte Puffotter 
SynonymVipera (Cerastes) caudalis SMITH 1839: 7
Vipera ocellata SMITH 1838: 92
Vipera (Cerastes) caudalis — DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1854: 1446
Bitis caudalis — FITZSIMONS & BRAIN 1958
Bitis caudalis — HARDING & WELCH 1980
Bitis caudalis — AUERBACH 1987: 205
Bitis caudalis — WELCH 1994: 27
Bitis (Calechidna) caudalis — LENK et al. 1999
Bitis caudalis — MCDIARMID, CAMPBELL & TOURÉ 1999: 361
Bitis caudalis — DOBIEY & VOGEL 2007 
DistributionNamibia, SW Angola, Republic of South Africa, Zimbabwe, Botswana, S Zambia

Type locality: sandy districts north of the Cape Colony. Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
TypesSyntypes: Possibly BMNH 1865.5.4.15a-e; note in BMNH catalogue states that 1865.5.4.15e agrees well with original description. 
CommentVenomous! A small adder seldom exceeding 15 in in length, puts up a bold fierce front when disturbed by writhing and hissing loudly; produces live young. 
References
  • Auerbach,R.D. 1987. The Amphibians and Reptiles of Botswana. Mokwepa Consultants, Botswana, 295 pp.
  • Barts, M. 2004. Dickfingergeckos - Pachydactylus turneri & Pachydactylus bibronii. Natur und Tier Verlag, Münster, 61 pp. - get paper here
  • Bauer, A.M., and Branch, W.R. 2003. The herpetofauna of the Richtersveld National Park, Northern Cape Province, Republic of South Africa. Herpetological Natural History 8: 111-160 [2001]
  • Bauer, Aaron M.; Branch, William R. & Haacke, Wulf D. 1993. The herpetofauna of the Kamanjab area and adjacent Damaraland, Namibia. Madoqua (Windhoek), 18 (2): 117-145.
  • Branch, William R. 1993. A Photographic Guide to Snakes and Other Reptiles of Southern Africa. Cape Town: Struik Publishers, 144 S.
  • Broadley, D.G. 1959. The herpetology of Southern Rhodesia. Part I--the snakes Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard 120 (1): 1-100 [reprint 1972] - get paper here
  • Calvete, J.J.; Escolano, J.; Sanz, L. 2007. Snake venomics of bitis species reveals large intragenus venom toxin composition variation: application to taxonomy of congeneric taxa. Journal of Proteome Research 6(7):2732-2745
  • CONRADIE, W., ENGELBRECHT, H., HERREL, A., MEASEY, G.J., NIELSEN, S.V., V ANHOOYDONCK, B., & TOLLEY, 2011. Reptile survey of Venetia Limpopo Nature Reserve, Limpopo Province - South Africa African Herp News (55): 6-12
  • Dobiey, M. & Vogel, G. 2007. Venomous Snakes of Africa/Giftschlangen Afrikas. Terralog 15, Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt am Main, 150 pp.
  • Douglas, R. M. 1981. Notes on the Reproduction on the Common Horned Adder, Bitis caudalis in the Central Namib Desert Jour. Herp. Ass. Afr. (25): 5-6 - get paper here
  • Duméril, A. M. C., BIBRON, G. & DUMÉRIL, A. H. A., 1854. Erpétologie générale ou histoire naturelle complète des reptiles. Tome septième. Deuxième partie, comprenant l'histoire des serpents venimeux. Paris, Librairie Encyclopédique de Roret: i-xii + 781-1536 - get paper here
  • Fitzsimons, V.F.M.; Brain, C.K. 1958. A Short account of the Reptiles of the Kalahari Gemsbok National Park. Koedoe, 1(1): 99-104 - get paper here
  • Gower, D.; Garrett, K. & Stafford, P. 2012. Snakes. Firefly Books, Buffalo, NY,<br />144 p..
  • Herrmann,H. W.; Joger,U.; Lenk,P. & Wink,M. 1999. Morphological and molecular phylogenies of viperines: conflicting evidence?. Kaupia (Darmstadt) (8): 21-30 - get paper here
  • Lenk,P.; Herrmann,H. W.; Joger,U. & Wink,M. 1999. Phylogeny and taxonomic subdivision of Bitis (Reptilia: Viperidae) based on molecular evidence. Kaupia (Darmstadt) (8): 31-38 - get paper here
  • Loveridge,A. 1936. African reptiles and amphibians in the Field Museum of Natural History. Zool. Ser. Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Chicago, 22 (1): 1-122 - get paper here
  • Mallow, D. Ludwig, D. & Nilson, G. 2003. True Vipers: Natural History and Toxinology of Old World Vipers. Krieger, Malabar, Florida, 410 pp. [review in HR 35: 200, Reptilia 35: 74]
  • Mattison, Chris 2007. The New Encyclopedia of Snakes. Princeton University Press
  • McDiarmid,R.W.; Campbell,J.A. & Touré,T.A. 1999. Snake species of the world. Vol. 1. Herpetologists’ League, 511 pp.
  • Phelps, T. 2010. Old World Vipers. Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt, 558 pp. [critical review in Sauria 33 (3): 19 and HR 43: 503]
  • Smith, A. 1838. Contributions to the Natural History of Southern Africa. Art. VIII. Mag. Nat. Hist., London, 2 (14): 92-94
  • Smith, A. 1839. Illustrations of the zoology of South Africa, Reptilia. Smith, Elder, and Co., London - get paper here
  • Smith, A. 1849. Illustrations of the Zoology of South Africa. 3 (Reptiles). Smith, Elder, and Co., London - get paper here
  • Sternfeld, R. 1910. Zur Schlangenfauna Deutsch-Südwestafrikas. Mehrere Fälle von Mimikry bei afrikanischen Schlangen. Mitt. zool. Mus. Berlin, 5: 51-60 - get paper here
  • Wagner, Philipp & Thomas M. Wilms 2010. A crowned devil: new species of Cerastes Laurenti, 1768 (Ophidia, Viperidae) from Tunisia, with two nomenclatural comments. Bonn Zool. Bull. 57 (2): 297–306 - get paper here
 
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