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Bitis parviocula BÖHME, 1976

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Higher TaxaViperidae, Viperinae, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes) 
Subspecies 
Common NamesBale Mountains adder 
SynonymBitis parviocula BÖHME 1976
Bitis parviocula — WELCH 1994: 29
Bitis (Macrocerastes) parviocula — LENK et al. 1999 (tentatively)
Bitis parviocula — MCDIARMID, CAMPBELL & TOURÉ 1999: 365
Bitis parviocula — LARGEN & SPAWLS 2010: 615
Bitis parviocula — LIVIGNI 2013: 279
Bitis (Macrocerastes) parviocula — WITTENBERG et al. 2014
Bitis parviocula — WALLACH et al. 2014: 94 
DistributionEthiopia

Type locality: “bei Yambo (= Yembo), an der Strasse von Metu nach Bedelle, Provinz Illubabor, SW Äthiopien [Ethiopia].” Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
Reproductionviviparous 
TypesHolotype: ZFMK 16803. 
CommentVenomous!

Synonymy: The holotype of Bitis harenna sp. nov. was identified previously as B. parviocula (Largen & Rasmussen 1993, Largen & Spawls 2010) and was used by Wittenberg et al. (2015) to score morphological characters for that species in their phylogenetic analyses. 
EtymologyNamed for the Harenna forest and escarpment, in the Bale Mountains National Park, where a live specimen of the new species was recently sighted. For nomenclatural purposes the specific epithet is considered a noun in apposition. 
References
  • Böhme,W. 1977. Eine neue Art der Gattung Bitis (Serpentes, viperidae) aus Äthiopien. Monitore zool. ital. (N.S.) Suppl. 9 (3): 59-68
  • Dobiey, M. & Vogel, G. 2007. Venomous Snakes of Africa/Giftschlangen Afrikas. Edition Chimaira, Terralog 15, 150 pp. - get paper here
  • GOWER, DAVID J.; EDWARD O. Z. WADE, STEPHEN SPAWLS, WOLFGANG BÖHME, EVAN R. BUECHLEY, DANIEL SYKES, TIMOTHY J. COLSTON 2016. A new large species of Bitis Gray, 1842 (Serpentes: Viperidae) from the Bale Mountains of Ethiopia Zootaxa 4093 (1): 041–063 - get paper here
  • Largen, M.J.; Spawls, S. 2010. Amphibians and Reptiles of Ethiopia and Eritrea. Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt, 694 pp.
  • LiVigni, F. (ed.) 2013. A Life for Reptiles and Amphibians, Volume 1. Chimaira, Frankfurt, 495 pp. - get paper here
  • Mallow, D. Ludwig, D. & Nilson, G. 2003. True Vipers: Natural History and Toxinology of Old World Vipers. Krieger, Malabar, Florida, 410 pp. [review in HR 35: 200, Reptilia 35: 74]
  • MARITZ, B., WALLNER, A. & DEANS, R. 2013. Bitis parviocula (Böhme 1977) Reproduction. African Herp News (59): 28-29
  • McDiarmid, R.W.; Campbell, J.A. & Touré,T.A. 1999. Snake species of the world. Vol. 1. Herpetologists’ League, 511 pp.
  • Phelps, T. 2010. Old World Vipers. Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt, 558 pp. [critical review in Sauria 33 (3): 19 and HR 43: 503]
  • Spawls, Stephen 1994. The herpetofauna of Ethiopia. Part 2. The forests and the mountains. Reptilian 2 (10): 7-14
  • Wittenberg, Rod D. & Robert C. Jadin & Allyson M. Fenwick & Ronald L. Gutberlet Jr. 2014. Recovering the evolutionary history of Africa’s most diverse viper genus: morphological and molecular phylogeny of Bitis (Reptilia: Squamata: Viperidae). Org Divers Evol, DOI 10.1007/s13127-014-0185-3
 
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