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Bitis rhinoceros (SCHLEGEL, 1855)

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Higher TaxaViperidae, Viperinae, Serpentes (snakes) 
Subspecies 
Common Names 
SynonymVipera rhinoceros SCHLEGEL 1855: 316
Echidna rhinoceros – DUMÉRIL 1856: 220
Clotho rhinoceros – COPE 1859
Bitis rhinoceros – PETERS 1882
Bitis (Macrocerastes) rhinoceros – LENK et al. 1999
Bitis rhinoceros — DOBIEY & VOGEL 2007
Bitis rhinoceros – BÖHME et al. 2011 
DistributionGuinea, Guinea-Bissau, Liberia, Sierra Leone, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
Types 
CommentVenomous!

Following Chippaux, B. gabonica has two dark triangles below eye and B. rhinoceros only one behind eye. 
References
  • Böhme, Wolfgang, Mark-Oliver Rödel, Christian Brede & Philipp Wagner 2011. The reptiles (Testudines, Squamata, Crocodylia) of the forested southeast of the Republic Guinea (Guinée forestière), wit a country-wide checklist Bonn zoological Bulletin 60 (1): 35-61 - get paper here
  • Chippaux,J.P. 2006. Les serpents d’Afrique occidentale et centrale. Paris (IRD editions), 311 pp.
  • Cope, E.D. 1859. Catalogue of the venomous serpents in the Museum of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, with notes on the families, genera and species. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 1859: 332-347 - get paper here
  • Dobiey, M. & Vogel, G. 2007. Venomous Snakes of Africa/Giftschlangen Afrikas. Terralog 15, Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt am Main, 150 pp.
  • Lenk,P.; Herrmann,H. W.; Joger,U. & Wink,M. 1999. Phylogeny and taxonomic subdivision of Bitis (Reptilia: Viperidae) based on molecular evidence. Kaupia (Darmstadt) (8): 31-38 - get paper here
  • Peters, W.C.H. 1882. Monatsb. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, 3: 146.
  • Phelps, T. 2010. Old World Vipers. Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt, 558 pp. [critical review in Sauria 33 (3): 19 and HR 43: 503]
  • Schlegel, H. 1855. Over eenige nieuwe soorten van vergiftige slangen van de Goudkust. Verslagen en Mededeelingen der Koninklijke Akademie van Wetenschapen Amsterdam, (Afdeeling Natuurkunde), 3: 312- 317
  • Segniagbeto G. H., Trape J. F., David P., Ohler A., Dubois A. & Glitho I. A. 2011. The snake fauna of Togo: systematics, distribution and biogeography, with remarks on selected taxonomic problems. Zoosystema 33 (3): 325-360. DOI: 10.5252/z2011n3a4 - get paper here
  • Spinner, Marlene; Alexander Kovalev, Stanislav N. Gorb & Guido Westhoff 2013. Snake velvet black: Hierarchical micro- and nanostructure enhances dark colouration in Bitis rhinoceros. Scientific Reports 3 (1846), doi:10.1038/srep01846 - get paper here
 
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