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Bitis rhinoceros (SCHLEGEL, 1855)

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Higher TaxaViperidae, Viperinae, Serpentes (snakes) 
Subspecies 
Common Names 
SynonymVipera rhinoceros SCHLEGEL 1855: 316
Echidna rhinoceros – DUMÉRIL 1856: 220
Clotho rhinoceros – COPE 1859
Bitis rhinoceros – PETERS 1882
Bitis (Macrocerastes) rhinoceros – LENK et al. 1999
Bitis rhinoceros — DOBIEY & VOGEL 2007
Bitis rhinoceros – BÖHME et al. 2011 
DistributionGuinea, Guinea-Bissau, Liberia, Sierra Leone, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo

Type locality: "Goud-kust, fusschen hat Kaap de Drie Punten en hat fort Acre" [= Gold Coast between Cap Three Points and Accra, Ghana]. Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
TypesSyntypes: RMNH 1643-46 and RMNH 1647 
CommentVenomous!

Following Chippaux, B. gabonica has two dark triangles below eye and B. rhinoceros only one behind eye. 
References
  • Böhme, Wolfgang, Mark-Oliver Rödel, Christian Brede & Philipp Wagner 2011. The reptiles (Testudines, Squamata, Crocodylia) of the forested southeast of the Republic Guinea (Guinée forestière), wit a country-wide checklist. Bonn zoological Bulletin 60 (1): 35-61 - get paper here
  • Chippaux,J.P. 2006. Les serpents d’Afrique occidentale et centrale. Paris (IRD editions), 311 pp.
  • Cope, E.D. 1859. Catalogue of the venomous serpents in the Museum of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, with notes on the families, genera and species. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 1859: 332-347 - get paper here
  • Dobiey, M. & Vogel, G. 2007. Venomous Snakes of Africa/Giftschlangen Afrikas. Terralog 15, Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt am Main, 150 pp.
  • Lenk,P.; Herrmann,H. W.; Joger,U. & Wink,M. 1999. Phylogeny and taxonomic subdivision of Bitis (Reptilia: Viperidae) based on molecular evidence. Kaupia (Darmstadt) (8): 31-38 - get paper here
  • Peters, W.C.H. 1882. Monatsb. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, 3: 146.
  • Phelps, T. 2010. Old World Vipers. Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt, 558 pp. [critical review in Sauria 33 (3): 19 and HR 43: 503]
  • Schlegel, H. 1855. Over eenige nieuwe soorten van vergiftige slangen van de Goudkust. Verslagen en Mededeelingen der Koninklijke Akademie van Wetenschapen Amsterdam, (Afdeeling Natuurkunde), 3: 312- 317
  • Segniagbeto G. H., Trape J. F., David P., Ohler A., Dubois A. & Glitho I. A. 2011. The snake fauna of Togo: systematics, distribution and biogeography, with remarks on selected taxonomic problems. Zoosystema 33 (3): 325-360. DOI: 10.5252/z2011n3a4 - get paper here
  • Spinner, Marlene; Alexander Kovalev, Stanislav N. Gorb & Guido Westhoff 2013. Snake velvet black: Hierarchical micro- and nanostructure enhances dark colouration in Bitis rhinoceros. Scientific Reports 3 (1846), doi:10.1038/srep01846 - get paper here
 
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