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Bitis schneideri (BOETTGER, 1886)

IUCN Red List - Bitis schneideri - Vulnerable, VU

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Higher TaxaViperidae, Viperinae, Serpentes (snakes) 
Subspecies 
Common NamesNamaqua Dwarf Adder, Namaqua Puff Adder 
SynonymVipera schneideri BOETTGER 1886: 8
Bitis caudalis paucisquamata MERTENS 1954
Bitis paucisquamata MERTENS 1954
Bitis schneideri — WELCH 1994: 29
Bitis schneideri — MATTISON 1995: 83
Bitis (Calechidna) schneideri — LENK et al. 1999
Bitis schneideri — MCDIARMID, CAMPBELL & TOURÉ 1999: 366
Bitis schneideri — MATTISON 2007: 85 
DistributionSW Namibia (southern regions of Namib desert, from Lüderitz Bay to Little Namaqualand),
Republic of South Africa

Type locality: "Angra Pequenia"[Lüderitz Bay, Namibia]. Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
TypesHolotype: SMF 21019 
CommentVenomous!

Size: B. schneideri is the smallest viperid snake. 
References
  • Boettger, O. 1886. Beitrag zur Herpetologie und Malakozoologie Südwest-Afrikas. Abh. senckenb. naturf. Ges. (Frankfurt) 1886: 3-29
  • Boycott, R.C. 1987. Geographical Distribution - Bitis schneideri. Jour. Herp. Ass. Afr. (33): 29-29 - get paper here
  • Branch, William R. 1993. A Photographic Guide to Snakes and Other Reptiles of Southern Africa. Cape Town: Struik Publishers, 144 S.
  • Dobiey, M. & Vogel, G. 2007. Venomous Snakes of Africa/Giftschlangen Afrikas. Terralog 15, Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt am Main, 150 pp.
  • Herrmann, H.-W.; W.R. Branch 2013. Fifty years of herpetological research in the Namib Desert and Namibia with an updated and annotated species checklist. Journal of Arid Environments 93: 94–115 - get paper here
  • Lenk,P.; Herrmann,H. W.; Joger,U. & Wink,M. 1999. Phylogeny and taxonomic subdivision of Bitis (Reptilia: Viperidae) based on molecular evidence. Kaupia (Darmstadt) (8): 31-38 - get paper here
  • Mallow, D. Ludwig, D. & Nilson, G. 2003. True Vipers: Natural History and Toxinology of Old World Vipers. Krieger, Malabar, Florida, 410 pp. [review in HR 35: 200, Reptilia 35: 74]
  • MARITZ, B. 2012. Bitis schneideri Boetger 1886 Relative Prey Size. Afr. Herp. News (57): 16
  • Maritz, Bryan 2013. To Run or Hide?: Escape Behaviour in a Cryptic African snake. African Zoology Oct 2012, Vol. 47, No. 2: 270-274 - get paper here
  • Maritz, Bryan & Graham J. Alexander 2013. Namaqua Dwarf Adders are generalist predators. African Journal of Herpetology - get paper here
  • Maritz, Bryan & Graham J. Alexander 2014. Namaqua Dwarf Adders are generalist predators. African Journal of Herpetology 63: 79-86 - get paper here
  • Maritz, Bryan and Graham J. Alexander 2011. Morphology, Sexual Dimorphism, and Growth in the Smallest Viperid, Bitis schneideri (Reptilia: Squamata: Viperidae). Journal of Herpetology 45 (4): 457-462. - get paper here
  • Maritz, Bryan and Graham J. Alexander 2012. Movement Patterns in the Smallest Viper, Bitis schneideri. Copeia Dec 2012, Vol. 2012, No. 4: 732-737. - get paper here
  • Maritz, Bryan and Graham J. Alexander 2012. Population Density and Survival Estimates of the African Viperid, Bitis schneideri. Herpetologica 68 (2): 195-202. - get paper here
  • Mattison, Chris 1995. The Encyclopedia of Snakes. New York: Facts on File, 256 pp.
  • Mattison, Chris 2007. The New Encyclopedia of Snakes. Princeton University Press
  • McDiarmid,R.W.; Campbell,J.A. & Touré,T.A. 1999. Snake species of the world. Vol. 1. Herpetologists’ League, 511 pp.
  • Mertens, R. 1954. Neue Schlangenrassen aus Südwest- und Südafrika. Zool. Anz. 152: 213-219
  • Phelps, T. 2010. Old World Vipers. Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt, 558 pp. [critical review in Sauria 33 (3): 19 and HR 43: 503]
 
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