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Boa constrictor LINNAEUS, 1758

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Higher TaxaBoidae (Boinae), Henophidia, Serpentes (snakes) 
SubspeciesBoa constrictor amarali (STULL 1932)
Boa constrictor constrictor LINNAEUS 1758
Boa constrictor imperator DAUDIN 1803
Boa constrictor longicauda PRICE & RUSSO 1991
Boa constrictor mexicana JAN 1863
Boa constrictor nebulosa (LAZELL 1964)
Boa constrictor occidentalis PHILIPPI 1873
Boa constrictor orophias LINNAEUS 1758
Boa constrictor ortonii COPE 1877
Boa constrictor sabogae (BARBOUR 1906) 
Common NamesE: Boa Constrictor [color morphs: albino, Anery, Blood, Camel, Coral Albino, Leopard, Leucistic, Pearl, Prodigy, Squaretail, Arabesque, Salmon, jaguar, Jungle, Marron, Motley, Onyx, Roswell, Fire, Inca, IMG, Pink, Avalanche, Blizzard, Ghost, Hytec, Moonglow, Paradigm, Pewter, Paradigm, Snow, Sunglow, Sunset]
G: Abgottschlange 
SynonymBoa constrictor LINNAEUS 1758: 215
Constrictor formosissimus LAURENTI 1768: 107
Constrictor rex serpentum LAURENTI 1768: 107
Constrictor auspex LAURENTI 1768: 108
Constrictor diviniloquus LAURENTI 1768: 108
Boa constrictor — SHAW & NODDER 1790: plate 51
Boa constrictrix SCHNEIDER 1801: 247 (emendation)
Boa constrictor — BOULENGER 1893: 117
Boa constrictor — DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1844: 507
Boa diviniloqua — DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1844: 515
Boa diviniloquax — JAN 1864
Boa constrictor — BOULENGER 1893: 117
Boa diviniloqua — BOULENGER 1893: 118
Constrictor constrictor — MARTIN 1958
Boa constrictor – SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1991: 591
Boa constrictor — LINER 1994
Boa constrictor — STARACE 1998: 90
Boa constrictor — MCDIARMID, CAMPBELL & TOURÉ 1999: 183
Boa constrictor — REYNOLD et al. 2014

Boa constrictor amarali STULL 1932
Constrictor constrictor amarali STULL 1932: 27
Boa constrictor amarili — FORCART 1951
Boa constrictor amarali — BINDER & LAMP 2007

Boa constrictor constrictor LINNAEUS 1758
Boa constrictor LINNAEUS 1758: 215
Boa constrictor constrictor — FORCART 1951
Boa constrictor constrictor — STIMSON 1969
Boa constrictor constrictor — BOOS 2001
Boa constrictor constrictor — BINDER & LAMP 2007

Boa constrictor imperator DAUDIN 1803
Boa imperator DAUDIN 1803: 150
Boa eques EYDOUX & SOULEYET 1842: 144
Boa imperator — DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1844: 519
Boa eques — DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1844: 521
Boa diviniloquax var. mexicana JAN 1863: 83
Boa imperator — JAN 1864
Boa eques — JAN 1864
Boa constrictor var. isthmica GARMAN 1883: 9
Boa imperator — BOULENGER 1893: 119
Boa mexicana — BOULENGER 1893: 119
Constrictor constrictor imperator — IHERING 1911: 8
Constrictor constrictor imperator — TAYLOR 1938: 489
Constrictor constrictor sigma SMITH 1943: 411
Boa constrictor imperator — FORCART 1951
Constrictor constrictor imperator — MERTENS 1952: 59
Boa constrictor imperator — STIMSON 1969
Boa constrictor imperator — BINDER & LAMP 2007
Boa imperator — HYNKOVA et al. 2009
Boa imperator — REYNOLD et al. 2014

Boa constrictor longicauda PRICE & RUSSO 1991
Boa constrictor longicauda — BINDER & LAMP 2007

Boa constrictor nebulosa (LAZELL 1964)
Constrictor constrictor nebulosus LAZELL 1964
Boa constrictor nebulosa — BINDER & LAMP 2007
Boa nebulosa — BONNY 2007

Boa constrictor occidentalis PHILIPPI 1873
Boa occidentalis PHILIPPI 1873
Boa occidentalis - BOULENGER 1893: 118
Euncetes murinus BERG 1893 (nec LINNAEUS)
Constrictor constrictor occidentalis IHERING 1911: 321
Constrictor occidentalis - SERIÉ 1921
Boa constrictor occidentalis - FORCART 1951: 199
Boa constrictor occidentalis - CEI 1993
Boa constrictor occidentalis — BINDER & LAMP 2007
Boa constrictor occidentalis — HYNKOVA et al. 2009
Boa constrictor occidentalis — WINCHELL 2010

Boa constrictor orophias LINNAEUS 1758
Boa Orophias LINNAEUS 1758: 215
? Boa diviniloqua — TYLER 1850: 133
Boa diviniloqua — COPE 1893: 429
Boa diviniloqua — BOULENGER 1893: 118 (non LAURENTI 1768)
Constrictor constrictor orophias — AMARAL 1929: 142
Boa constrictor orophias — STIMSON 1969
Boa constrictor orophias — BINDER & LAMP 2007
Boa orophias — BONNY 2007

Boa constrictor ortonii COPE 1878
Boa ortonii COPE 1878: 35
Constrictor constrictor ortonii — SCHMIDT & WALKER 1943: 305
Boa constrictor ortonii — STIMSON 1969
Boa constrictor ortonii — BINDER & LAMP 2007
Boa constrictor ortonii — KOCH 2010

Boa constrictor sabogae (BARBOUR 1906)
Epicrates sabogae BARBOUR 1906: 226
Constrictor constrictor sabogae — BARBOUR & LOVERIDGE 1929: 139
Boa constrictor sabogae — FORCART 1951
Boa constrictor sabogae — BINDER & LAMP 2007 
DistributionMexico (Yucatan, Tamaulipas, Quéretaro, Veracruz, Puebla, Jalisco, Morelos), Belize, Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama,
Colombia, Venezuela (Merida [HR 27: 88], Isla Margarita), Guyana, French French Guiana, Surinam, Peru (Pasco etc.), Bolivia, Brazil (Amapá, Pará, Rondonia, Bahia, Sergipe, RO, Amazonas, Pará, Pernambuco, Distrito Federal, São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Paraná, Piauí, Mato Grosso, Goiás, S Ceará), Argentina, Paraguay,
Trinidad, Tobago, Antilles, e.g. Martinique; Antigua (sub-fossil only), elevation (Honduras): 0-1370 m
USA (introduced to Florida)

amarali: SE Bolivia, S Brazil (S Mato Grosso, Goias, Mato Grosso do Sul, Sao Paulo), N Paraguay; Type locality: Sao Paulo, Brazil.

eques: Peru (Piura). Type locality: coastal city of Paita and vicinity, Peru.

imperator: Mexico (Sinaloa, Chihuahua [HR 32: 277], Michoacan), San Andres Island (Colombia), Panama; Type locality: “l’Amerique meridionale, principalement au Mexique”

longicauda: N Peru; Type locality: region around Tumbes, Tumbes Province, N Peru.

melanogaster: Ecuador (Morona Santiago, Napo); Type locality: Rio Yaupi, Morona Santiago, Ecuador.

nebulosa: Dominica; Type locality: Woodford Hill, Dominica.

occidentalis: Paragua, Argentina |(Mendoza, San Luis, Cordoba, La Pampa), SE Bolivia; Type locality: Mendoza and San Juan, Argentina.

orophias: St. Lucia; Type locality: Praslin, St. Lucia.

ortonii: NW Peru (La Libertad, Cajamarca, Lambayeque, Piura; Type locality: Chilete (Cajamarca), west of Pacasmayo, Peru.

sabogae: Gulf of Panama (Islas Perlas, Isla del Rey, Isla San José, and others); Type locality: Saboga Island (Panama).

Type locality: “Indiis” Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
TypesHolotype: ANSP 11402 [ortonii]
Syntypes: NRS (= paratypes fide BONNY 2007) 
CommentSynonymy: Boa constrictor melanogaster Langhammer 1983 is a nomen dubium fide Price & Russo 1991. It’s type locality is “Ecuador, Morona-Santiago, nr. Río Yaupi Catholic Mission, upstream from Ró Santiago, Jivaro Indians, Holotype: UMMZ. Synonymy partly after STIMSON 1969.

Subspecies: Hynková et la. (2010) suggested that B. c. imperator may be a full species. If so, they also suggested that it would comprise all populations of the Central American clade, including B. c. sabogae and B. c. longicauda. Hynkova et al. found no molecular support for the distinction between the nominotypic subspecies and B. c. amarali. Hynkova et al. did not analyze all (sub-) species, e.g. orophias or nebulosa.

Reproduction: viviparous; Booth et al. (2010) provide evidence for parthenogenesis in B. constrictor.

Crother et al. (2009) have found a snake shed in Manitoba, Canada, which was identified by DNA sequencing as most likely coming from Boa constrictor.

Genome: The Boa constrictor genome has been sequenced by Vicoso et al. (2013).

Relative abundance in Honduras: rare

Type species: Boa constrictor LINNAEUS 1758: 215 is the type species of the genus Boa LINNAEUS 1758: 214. 
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