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Borikenophis portoricensis (REINHARDT & LÜTKEN, 1862)

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Higher TaxaDipsadidae, Alsophiini, Colubroidea, Serpentes (snakes) 
SubspeciesBorikenophis portoricensis portoricensis (REINHARDT and LÜTKEN 1862)
Borikenophis portoricensis anegadae (BARBOUR 1917)
Borikenophis portoricensis aphantus (SCHWARTZ 1966)
Borikenophis portoricensis nicholsi (GRANT 1937)
Borikenophis portoricensis prymnus (SCHWARTZ 1966)
Borikenophis portoricensis richardi (GRANT 1946) 
Common NamesPuerto Rican Racer 
SynonymAlsophis portoricensis REINHARDT & LÜTKEN 1862: 221
Dromicus sanctae-crucis var. portoricensis — BOULENGER 1896: 113
Alsophis portoricensis —  MAGLIO 1970
Alsophis portoricensis — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1991: 572
Alsophis portoricensis — CROTHER 1999
Ocyophis portoricensis — ZAHER et al. 2009
Borikenophis portoricensis — HEDGES et al. 2009

Borikenophis portoricensis anegadae BARBOUR 1917
Alsophis anegadae BARBOUR 1917
Alsophis portoricensis anegadae — CAREY 1972
Alsophis portoricensis anegadae — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1991: 573
Alsophis portoricensis anegadae — BARUN et al. 2007
Borikenophis portoricensis anegadae — HEDGES et al. 2009

Borikenophis portoricensis aphantus (SCHWARTZ 1966)
Alsophis portoricensis — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1991: 573
Borikenophis portoricensis aphantus — HEDGES et al. 2009

Borikenophis portoricensis nicholsi (GRANT 1937)
Alsophis nicholsi GRANT 1937
Alsophis portoricensis — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1991: 573
Borikenophis portoricensis nicholsi — HEDGES et al. 2009

Borikenophis portoricensis prymnus (SCHWARTZ 1966)
Alsophis portoricensis — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1991: 574
Borikenophis portoricensis prymnus — HEDGES et al. 2009

Borikenophis portoricensis richardi (GRANT 1946)
Alsophis portoricensis — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1991: 574
Borikenophis portoricensis richardi — HEDGES et al. 2009 
DistributionPuerto Rico (incl. Culebrita), Isla Mona, Isla Desecheo, British Virgin Islands (e.g. Anegada)

portoricensis: widely distributed in Puerto Rico (including Cayo Santiago) except southern third of island and extreme west.

anegadae: British Virgin Is.

aphantus: Isla Vieques.

nicholsi: Buck Island of the Capella Islands off south coast of St. Thomas, U. S. Virgin Is.

prymnus: Caja de Muertos; Platillo; southern Puerto Rico.

richardi: Isla Culebra, St. Thomas and its satellites, Lovango Cay, Peter I., SaltI.

Type locality: Puerto Rico. Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
TypesSyntypes: ZMUC 60460 (Presumably) = UZM (but missing); other syntype formerly in NMW.
HOLOTYPE MCZ 12083 [anegadae
HOLOTYPE BMNH RR1964.944 [aphantus
HOLOTYPE UMMZ 80648 [nicholsi
HOLOTYPE MCZ 77226 [prymnus
HOLOTYPE USNM 66522 [richardi 
CommentFor illustrations see Stejneger, 1904; Schmidt, 1928; Schwartz, 1966c; Philibosian and Yntema, 1977; Rivero, 1978; MacLean, 1982.

Alsophis portoricensis variegatus SCHMIDT, 1926 has been elevated to full species status by HEDGES et al. 2009.

Type species: Alsophis portoricensis REINHARDT and LÜTKEN 1862 is the type species of the genus Borikenophis HEDGES & VIDAL 2009.

Diagnosis (genus): Species in this genus have 17–19 midbody scale rows, 163–198 ventrals, 106–145 subcaudals, 1–3 apical scale pits, eight upper labials, 10 lower labial, 16-21 maxillary teeth, and 22-35 dentary teeth (Table 2). Borikenophis differs in at least one of these characters from all other alsophiine genera except Alsophis and Hypsirhynchus. Except for B. sanctaecrucis (191–198 ventrals), it differs from most Alsophis in having a lower number of ventrals (163–187 versus 184–220 in Alsophis). Most Hypsirhynchus have 19 midbody scales rows (H. ater and H. melanichnus have 17 rows) whereas most Borikenophis have 17 rows (those populations from the Virgin Islands usually have 19 rows). 
EtymologyEtymology (genus): The generic name refers to its distribution centered on the Puerto Rican Bank; Boriken is the Taino word for Puerto Rico. 
References
  • Barbour,T. 1917. Notes on the herpetology of the Virgin Islands. Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 30: 97-103. - get paper here
  • Barun, A.; Perry, G.; Henderson, R.W. & Powell, R. 2007. Alsophis portoricensis anegadae (Squamata: Colubridae): Morphometric Characteristics, Activity Patterns, and Habitat Use. Copeia 2007 (1): 93-100 - get paper here
  • Boulenger, George A. 1896. Ueber einige Reptilien von der Insel Mona (Westindien). Jahrberichte und Abhandlungen aus dem Naturwissenschaftlichen Verein in Magdeburg 1894-1896: 112-114
  • Carey, W.M. 1972. The Herpetology of Anegada, British Virgin Islands. Carib. J. Sci.12(1/2): 79-89.
  • Crother, Brian I. 1999. PHYLOGENETIC RELATIONSHIPS AMONG WEST INDIAN XENODONTINE SNAKES (SERPENTES; COLUBRIDAE) WITH COMMENTS ON THE PHYLOGENY OF SOME MAINLAND XENODONTINES. Contemporary Herpetology 2 - get paper here
  • Grant, C. 1937. Herpetological notes with new species from the American and British Virgin Islands, 1936. Jour. Dept. Agric. Puerto Rico 21:503-522.
  • Hegemann, G. 1961. Enzymatic constitution of Alsophis saliva and its biological implications. Breviora (134): 1-8 - get paper here
  • MacLean, W.P. 1982. Reptiles and amphibians of the Virgin Islands. MacMillan Caribbean, London:vii +54 pp.
  • Maglio, Vincent J. 1970. West Indian Xenodontine colubrid snakes: Their probable origin, phylogeny, and zoogeography. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard 141 (1): 1-54 - get paper here
  • Philibosian, R. and Yntema, J.A. 1977. Annotated checklist of the birds, mammals, reptiles, and amphibians of the Virgin Islands & Puerto Rico. Information Services, Frederiksted, St. Croix, 48 pp.
  • Philibosian, R.; Yntema, J. A. 1976. Records and status of some reptiles and amphibians in the Virgin Islands. I. 1968-1975. Herpetologica 32 (1): 81-85 - get paper here
  • Philibosian, R.; Yntema, J. A. 1978. Records and status of some reptiles and amphibians in the Virgin Islands. II. 1975-1976. Herpetologica 34 (1): 47-51 - get paper here
  • Reinhardt, JOHANNES & CHRISTIAN FREDERIK LÜTKEN 1862. Bidrag tii det vestindiske Öriges og navnligen tii de dansk-vestindiske Oers Herpetologie. Vidensk. Meddel. Naturhist. For. Kjöbenhavn (10-18): 153-291 [1862] - get paper here
  • Rios-López, N. & Aide, T.M. 2007. Herpetofaunal dynomics during secondary succession. Herpetologica 63 (1): 35-50 - get paper here
  • Rivero, J.A. 1978. Los anfibios y reptiles de Puerto Rico. M. Pareja Montana, 16, Barcelona, Espafia: x + 152 + 148pp.
  • Schmidt, K.P. 1928. Scientific Survey of Porto Rico and the Virgin Islands: Amphibians and land reptiles of Porto Rico, with a list of those reported from the Virgin Islands. New York Academy of Sciences 10 (1):160 pp.
  • Schwartz, A. 1966. Snakes of the genus Alsophis in Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. Stud. Fauna Curaçao and Carib. Is. 23(90):175-227.
  • Schwartz,A. & Henderson,R.W. 1991. Amphibians and Reptiles of the West Indies. University of Florida Press, Gainesville, 720 pp.
  • Stejneger, L. 1904. The herpetology of Porto Rico. Rept. United States Natl. Mus. 1902: 549-724.
  • Torres-Santana C. 2010. Borikenophis portoricensis (Puerto Rican Racer). Distribution. Caribbean Herpetology 13: 1 - get paper here
 
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