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Bothriechis nigroviridis PETERS, 1859

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Higher TaxaViperidae, Crotalinae, Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Common NamesE: Black-speckled Palm Pit Viper
G: Schwarzgelbe Palmenlanzenotter 
SynonymBothriechis nigroviridis PETERS 1859: 278
Bothrops (Bothriechis) nigroviridis — MÜLLER 1878: 401
Bothrops nigroviridis nigroviridis — BARBOUR & LOVERIDGE 1929
Trimeresurus nigroviridis marchi — ROKOSKY 1942
Trimeresurus nigroviridis — POPE 1955
Bothrops rowleyi — BOGERT 1968
Bothrops nigroviridis — PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970: 51
Bothrops nigroviridis nigroviridis — PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970: 52
Bothrops marchi — WILSON & MEYER 1985
Bothrops nigroviridis — VILLA et al. 1988
Bothriechis nigroviridis — WELCH 1994: 29
Bothriechis nigroviridis — MCDIARMID, CAMPBELL & TOURÉ 1999: 245
Bothriechis nigroviridis — MATTISON 2007: 222
Bothriechis nigroviridis — WALLACH et al. 2014: 108 
DistributionCosta Rica, W Panama

elevation up to 3000 m.

Type locality: Volcán Barba, Costa Rica.  
TypesSyntypes: ZMB 2986-2988. 

Similar species: B. nubestris.

Illustrations: Color plate 88 in VILLA et al. 1988 and cover of LILLYWHITE 1987.

Synonymy partly after PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970. Not listed in LINER 1994.

Subspecies: The subspecies Bothriechis nigroviridis aurifer and B. nigroviridis marchi have been elevated to full species status. Not listed for Honduras by WILSON & MCCRANIE (2002).

Phylogenomics: see Mason et al. 2019 for a phylogenomic analysis of the genus.

Habitat: forests, fully arboreal (Harrington et al. 2018)

Type species: Bothriechis nigroviridis PETERS 1859: 278 is the type species of the genus Bothriechis PETERS 1859. 
EtymologyNamed after Latin niger, nigra, nigrum = black or dark, and viridis = green, referring to the color of the species (even though it is often rather yellow than green). 
  • Barbour,T. & LOVERIDGE,A. 1929. On some Hondurian and Guatemalan snakes with the description of a new arboreal pit viper of the genus Bothrops. Bull. Antivenin Inst. America 3: 1-3
  • Bogert,C.M. 1968. A new arboreal pit viper of the genus Bothrops from the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, México. American Museum Novitates 2341: 1-14 - get paper here
  • Campbell, J.A. & Lamar, W.W. 1989. The Venomous Reptiles of Latin America. Comstock Publishing/Cornell University Press, Ithaca
  • DOAN, TIFFANY M.; ANDREW J. MASON, TODD A. CASTOE, MAHMOOD SASA & CHRISTOPHER L. PARKINSON 2016. A cryptic palm-pitviper species (Squamata: Viperidae: Bothriechis) from the Costa Rican highlands, with notes on the variation within B. nigroviridis. Zootaxa 4138 (2): 271–290 - get paper here
  • García-Padilla E, DeSantis DL, Rocha A, Mata-Silva V, Johnson JD, Wilson LD. 2020. Conserving the Mesoamerican herpetofauna: the most critical case of the priority level one endemic species. Amphibian & Reptile Conservation 14(2) [General Section]: 73–132 (e240) - get paper here
  • Harrington, Sean M; Jordyn M de Haan, Lindsey Shapiro, Sara Ruane 2018. Habits and characteristics of arboreal snakes worldwide: arboreality constrains body size but does not affect lineage diversification. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 125 (1): 61–71 - get paper here
  • Köhler, G. 2008. Reptiles of Central America. 2nd Ed. Herpeton-Verlag, 400 pp.
  • Lillywhite, H. B. 1987. Snakes under pressure. Nat. Hist. 96 (11): 58-67. - get paper here
  • Liner, E.A. 1994. Scientific and common names for the Amphibians and Reptiles of Mexico in English and Spanish. Herpetological Circular 23: 1-113
  • Mason AJ; Grazziotin F; Zaher H; Lemmon A; Moriarty Lemmon E & Parkinson C 2019. Reticulate evolution in nuclear Middle America causes discordance in the phylogeny of palm-pitvipers (Viperidae: Bothriechis). Journal of Biogeography 46 (5): 833-844 - get paper here
  • Mata-Silva, V, DeSantis DL, García-Padilla E, Johnson JD, Wilson LD. 2019. The endemic herpetofauna of Central America: a casualty of anthropocentrism. Amphibian & Reptile Conservation 13 (1) [General Section]: 1–64 (e168) - get paper here
  • Mattison, Chris 2007. The New Encyclopedia of Snakes. Princeton University Press
  • McCranie J R 2011. The snakes of Honduras. SSAR, Salt Lake City, 725 pp.
  • McDiarmid, R.W.; Campbell, J.A. & Touré,T.A. 1999. Snake species of the world. Vol. 1. [type catalogue] Herpetologists’ League, 511 pp.
  • Müller, F. 1878. Über einige seltene und neue Reptilien aus Guatemala. Verh. Naturf. Ges. Basel, 6: 390-411 - get paper here
  • O’Shea, M. 2018. The Book of Snakes. Ivy Press / Quarto Publishing, London, - get paper here
  • Parkinson,C.L. 1999. Molecular systematics and biogeographical history of pitvipers as determined by mitochondrial ribosomal DNA sequences. Copeia 1999 (3): 576-586 - get paper here
  • Peters, James A.; Donoso-Barros, Roberto & Orejas-Miranda, Braulio 1970. Catalogue of the Neotropical Squamata: Part I Snakes. Bull. US Natl. Mus. 297: 347 pp. - get paper here
  • Peters,W. 1859. Über die von Hrn. Dr. Hoffmann in Costa Rica gesammelten und an das Königl. Zoologische Museum gesandten Schlangen. Monatsber. Königl. Preuss. Akad. Wiss. Berlin 1859: 275-278 - get paper here
  • Porras, L.W. & Solórzano, A. 2006. Costa Rica’s venomous snakes. Reptilia (GB) (48): 11-17 - get paper here
  • Porras, L.W. & Solórzano, A. 2006. Die Schlangen Costa Ricas. Reptilia (Münster) 11 (61): 20-27 - get paper here
  • Salvin,O. 1860. On the reptiles of Guatemala. Proc. zool. Soc. London 1860: 451-461 - get paper here
  • Savage, J.M. 2002. The Amphibians and Reptiles of Costa Rica: A Herpetofauna Between Two Continents, Between Two Seas. University of Chicago Press, 934 pp. [review in Copeia 2003 (1): 205]
  • Smith, Hobart M.; Moll, Edward O. 1969. A taxonomic rearrangement of the pit vipers of the Bothrops nigroviridis complex of southern Mexico. Journal of Herpetology 3 (3-4): 151-155 - get paper here
  • Solorzano, A. 2004. Serpientes de Costa Rica - Snakes of Costa Rica. Editorial INBio, Costa Rica, 792 pp.
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
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