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Bothrocophias campbelli (FREIRE-LASCANO, 1991)

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Higher TaxaViperidae, Crotalinae, Serpentes (snakes) 
Subspecies 
Common NamesS: Víbora boca de sapo 
SynonymBothrops campbelli FREIRE-LASCANO 1991
Trigonocephalus pulcher PETERS 1863
Lachesis pulcher - BOULENGER 1896
Bothrops pulchra - AMARAL 1930
Porthidium almawebi SCHÄTTI & KRAMER 1993
Bothrops campbelli — MCDIARMID, CAMPBELL & TOURÉ 1999: 259
Bothrocophias campbelli — GUTBERLET & CAMPBELL 2001
Bothrocophias campbelli — CARRERA et al. 2009
Bothrocophias campbelli — CARRASCO et al. 2012 
DistributionNW Ecuador, Colombia, elevation 1000-1500 m

Type locality: Provincia de Chimborazo, Ecuador Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
Typesholotype: INHMT 1956 
CommentVenomous!

SCHATTI & KRAMER (1993) discovered that the holotype of Bothrops pulcher (PETERS 1852) actuall represents what had been referred to in much of the literature as Bothriopsis albocarinata (SHREVE 1934) and therefore the name pulcher has priority. The ICZN resolved the issue as follows (Opinion 1939): the correct name for the highland, arboreal pitviper recently known as Bothriopsis albocarinata is Bothriopsis pulchra (PETERS), and the snake referred to as Bothrops pulcher by CAMPBELL & LAMAR (1989) and many previous workers is now appropriately knwn as Bothrops campbelli FREIRE-LASCANO. See also discussion in MCDIARMID, CAMPBELL & TOURÉ 1999. 
EtymologyEtymology: Named after Jonathan A. Campbell (13 May 1947-), American herpetologist. 
References
  • Arteaga AF, Bustamante-Enríquez LM and Guayasamin JM 2013. The Amphibians and Reptiles of Mindo. http://www.tropicalherping.com - get paper here
  • Campbell, J.A. & Lamar, W.W. 1989. The Venomous Reptiles of Latin America. Comstock Publishing/Cornell University Press, Ithaca
  • Carrasco, P.A., C.I. Mattoni, G.C. Leynaud, and G.J. Scrocchi. 2012. Morphology, phylogeny and taxonomy of South American bothropoid pitvipers (Serpentes, Viperidae). Zoologica Scripta 41:1–15
  • Carrera, C. et al. 2009. Guía de Campo de los Pequeños Vertebrados del Distrito Metropolitano de Quito (DMQ). Publicación Miscelánea N° 5. Serie de Publicaciones del Museo Ecuatoriano de Ciencias Naturales (MECN) – Fondo Ambiental del MDMQ. 1-89 pp. Imprenta Nuevo Arte. Quito-Ecuador.
  • Castro, F.; Ayerbe, S.; Calderón, J.J. & Cepeda, B. 2005. Nuevo registro para Colombia de Bothrocophias campbelli y notas sobre B. colombianus y B. myersi (Serpentes:Viperidae). Novedades Colombianas 8(1):57-64 - get paper here
  • Cisneros-Heredia, Diego F., Maria Olga Borja, Proaño and Jean Marc Touzet. 2006. Distribution and natural history of the Ecuadorian Toad-headed Pitvipers of the genus Bothrocophias. Herpetozoa 19 (1/2):17-26. - get paper here
  • Freire-lascano 1991. Publ. Trab. Cient. Ecuador, Univ. Técn. Machala 2: 11 pp.
  • Gutberlet, R.L. & Campbell, J.A. 2001. Generic recognition for a neglected lineage of South American pitvipers (Squamata: Viperidae: Crotalinae), with the description of a new species from the Colombian Chocó. American Museum Novitates (3316): 1-15 - get paper here
  • International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature 1999. Opinion 1939. Trigonocephalus pulcher Peters, 1862 (currently Bothrops pulcher, Bothriechis pulcher or Bothriopsis pulchra; Reptilia, Serpentes): defined by the holotype, and not a neotype; Bothrops campbelli Freire Lascano, 1991: specific name place Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature 56 (3): 218-220. - get paper here
  • McDiarmid,R.W.; Campbell,J.A. & Touré,T.A. 1999. Snake species of the world. Vol. 1. Herpetologists’ League, 511 pp.
  • Schätti B; Kramer E 1993. Ecuadorianische Grubenottern der Gattungen Bothriechis, Bothrops und Porthidium (Serpentes: Viperidae). Revue Suisse de Zoologie 100 (2): 235-278 - get paper here
  • VALENCIA, J. H. & GARZÓN, K. & BETANCOURT-YÉPEZ, R. 2008. Notes on the reproduction of the Ecuadorian toad-headed pitviper Bothrocophias campbelli (FREIRE-LASCANO, 1991) [Short Note] Herpetozoa 21 - get paper here
 
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