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Bothrocophias microphthalmus (COPE, 1875)

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Higher TaxaViperidae, Crotalinae, Colubroidea, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes) 
Subspecies 
Common Names 
SynonymBothrops microphthalmus COPE 1876: 182
Bothrops microphthalmus — COPE 1879: 277
Lachesis microphthalmus BOULENGER 1896
Lachesis pleuroxanthus BOULENGER 1912: 423
Bothrops microphtalmus [sic] — PÉREZ-SANTOS & MORENO 1988
Porthidium microphthalmum - SCHÄTTI & KRAMER 1993
Bothrops microphthalmus — WELCH 1994: 33
Bothrops microphthalmus — MCDIARMID, CAMPBELL & TOURÉ 1999: 267
Bothrocophias microphthalmus — GUTBERLET & CAMPBELL 2001
Bothrops microphthalmus — LEHR et al. 2002
Bothrocophias microphthalmus — CARRASCO et al. 2012
Bothrocophias microphthalmus — WALLACH et al. 2014: 113 
DistributionEcuador, Peru, NW Bolivia, W Colombia, Brazil (Rondônia)

Type locality: Between Balso Puerto and Moyabamba, Peru. Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
Reproductionviviparous 
TypesHolotype: ANSP 11515 
CommentVenomous!

Synonymy: Lachesis pleuroxanthus has been synonymized with Bothrocophias microphthalmus by most recent authors (e.g. Campbell & Lamar 2004, Wallach et al. 2014). However, the NCBI taxonomy still has an entry for Bothrops pleuroxanthus (taxID 157557), based on an unpublished study by W. Wüster (submitted in Aug 2000.

Taxonomy: SCHÄTTI & KRAMER 1993 didn’t justify their allocation of microphthalmus to Porthidium, hence it has been assigned to Bothrops by some authors (W. Wüster, pers. comm.).

Subspecies: Bothrops microphthalmus colombianus has been elevated to species status. 
References
  • BERNARDE, P.S., ALBUQUERQUE, S., BARROS, T.O. & TURCI, L.C.B. 2012. Serpentes do Estado de Rondônia, Brasil. Biota Neotrop. 12(3): 1-29 - get paper here
  • BERNARDE, P.S., ALBUQUERQUE, S., BARROS, T.O. & TURCI, L.C.B. 2012. Snakes of Rondônia State, Brazil. Biota Neotrop. 12(3): - get paper here
  • Boulenger, George A. 1912. Descriptions of new reptiles from the Andes of South America, preserved in the British Museum. Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (8) 10: 420-424 - get paper here
  • Campbell, J.A. & Lamar, W.W. 1989. The Venomous Reptiles of Latin America. Comstock Publishing/Cornell University Press, Ithaca
  • Carrasco, P.A., C.I. Mattoni, G.C. Leynaud, and G.J. Scrocchi. 2012. Morphology, phylogeny and taxonomy of South American bothropoid pitvipers (Serpentes, Viperidae). Zoologica Scripta 41:1–15 - get paper here
  • Carrasco, Paola A.; Leynaud, Gerardo C.; Scrocchi, Gustavo J 2010. Redescription of the southernmost snake species, Bothrops ammodytoides (Serpentes: Viperidae: Crotalinae). Amphibia-Reptilia 31: 323-338 - get paper here
  • CATENAZZI, A., LEHR, E. & VON MAY, R. 2013. The amphibians and reptiles of Manu National Park and its buffer zone, Amazon basin and eastern slopes of the Andes, Peru. Biota Neotrop. 13(4): 269-283
  • Cisneros-Heredia, Diego F., Maria Olga Borja, Proaño and Jean Marc Touzet. 2006. Distribution and natural history of the Ecuadorian Toad-headed Pitvipers of the genus Bothrocophias. Herpetozoa 19 (1/2):17-26. - get paper here
  • Cope, E.D. 1875. Report on the Reptiles brought by Professor James Orton from the middle and upper Amazon and western Peru. Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia N.S. (2) 8: 159-183 [sometimes thought to be published 1876 but see Murphy et al. 2007 for clarification] - get paper here
  • Cope, E.D. 1879. Eleventh contribution to the herpetology of tropical America. Proc. Amer. Philos. Soc. 18: 261-277. - get paper here
  • Gutberlet, R.L. & Campbell, J.A. 2001. Generic recognition for a neglected lineage of South American pitvipers (Squamata: Viperidae: Crotalinae), with the description of a new species from the Colombian Chocó. American Museum Novitates (3316): 1-15 - get paper here
  • KUCH, U. & FREIRE, A. 1995. Notes on morphology, reproduction and medical importance of the poorly known Small-eyed Lancehead, Bothrops microphthalmus COPE, 1876 in Ecuador. Herpetozoa 8 - get paper here
  • Lehr, E. 2002. Amphibien und Reptilien in Peru. Natur und Tier-Verlag (Münster), 208 pp. - get paper here
  • Lehr, E. & Lara, J. 2002. Die Schlangenfauna von Pozuzo (Peru) (Reptilia: Serpentes). Faun. Abh. Mus. Tierk. Dresden 22 (2): 353-359
  • McDiarmid, R.W.; Campbell, J.A. & Touré,T.A. 1999. Snake species of the world. Vol. 1. Herpetologists’ League, 511 pp.
  • Monzel, Markus & Wolfgang Wüster 2008. Neotropische Grubenottern – Evolution, Biogeographie und Ökologie. Draco 8 (33): 4-27 - get paper here
  • Pérez-Santos,C. & Moreno, A.G. 1988. Ofidios de Colombia. Museo reegionale di Scienze Naturali, Torino, Monographie VI, 517 pp.
  • Schätti B; Kramer E 1993. Ecuadorianische Grubenottern der Gattungen Bothriechis, Bothrops und Porthidium (Serpentes: Viperidae). Revue Suisse de Zoologie 100 (2): 235-278 - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
 
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