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Bothrops asper (GARMAN, 1883)

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Higher TaxaViperidae, Crotalinae, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes) 
Subspecies 
Common NamesE: Terciopelo
G: Rauhschuppige Lanzenotter
S: Víbora Equis 
SynonymTrigonocephalus asper GARMAN 1883: 124
Trigonocephalus xanthogrammus COPE 1868: 110
Bothrops atrox septentrionalis MÜLLER 1885: 699
Lachesis xanthogrammus — BOULENGER 1896
Bothrops atrox asper — SMITH & TAYLOR 1945
Bothrops atrox asper — TAYLOR 1949: 215
Bothrops asper — HOGE 1966: 113
Bothrops asper — PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970: 43
Bothrops asper — LINER 1994
Bothrops atrox xanthogrammus - SCHÄTTI & KRAMER 1993
Bothrops xanthogrammus — WELCH 1994: 35
Bothrops asper — MCDIARMID, CAMPBELL & TOURÉ 1999: 254
Bothrops asper — FENWICK et al. 2009
Bothrops asper — CARRASCO et al. 2012
Bothrops asper — WALLACH et al. 2014: 115 
DistributionS Mexico (Chiapas, Oaxaca, Veracruz, Puebla, Quéretaro, Hidalgo, San Luis Potosí, Hidalgo, Tamaulipas southwards), Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama, Belize, Colombia (Valle del Cauca), W Ecuador, Venezuela; elevation (Honduras): 880-1160 m, 0-1500 m (Colombia)

Type locality: Obispo, Darién, Panama. Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
Reproductionviviparous with up to 90 newborns 
TypesType: MCZ 2718, 2 heads.
Holotype: ANSP 9978; Ecuador, Pallatanga [xanthogrammus] 
CommentVenomous! The most dangerous venomous snake in Central America.

Distribution: Has often been confused with B. atrox and hence erroneously reported from Trinidad and El Salvador (W. Wüster, pers. comm.). Populations of the northern South American are Bothrops colombiensis, while the distribution of asper is Central America and part of the Pacific, hence not in Venezuela (Luis Esqueda, pers. comm., 21 April 2016, see also Natera-Mumaw et al. 2015).

Nomenclature: The name xanthogrammus has priority over asper but asper is used by many authors inorder to maintain nomenclatural stability. See discussion in McDiarmid et al. (1999: 255).

Synonymy partly after PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970.

Relative abundance in Honduras: common; causes most snake bites in Costa Rica.

Max. total length: > 2m 
EtymologyNamed after Latin “asper” = rough, in reference to the nasty temper of the snake, or to the roughness of the keeled scales on the dorsum. 
References
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