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Bothrops asper (GARMAN, 1883)

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Higher TaxaViperidae, Crotalinae, Serpentes (snakes) 
Subspecies 
Common NamesE: Terciopelo
G: Rauhschuppige Lanzenotter
S: Víbora Equis 
SynonymTrigonocephalus asper GARMAN 1883: 124
Trigonocephalus xanthogrammus COPE 1868: 110
Bothrops atrox septentrionalis MÜLLER 1885: 699
Lachesis xanthogrammus — BOULENGER 1896
Bothrops atrox asper — SMITH & TAYLOR 1945
Bothrops atrox asper — TAYLOR 1949: 215
Bothrops asper — HOGE 1966: 113
Bothrops asper — PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970: 43
Bothrops asper — LINER 1994
Bothrops atrox xanthogrammus - SCHÄTTI & KRAMER 1993
Bothrops xanthogrammus — WELCH 1994: 35
Bothrops asper — MCDIARMID, CAMPBELL & TOURÉ 1999: 254
Bothrops asper — FENWICK et al. 2009
Bothrops asper — CARRASCO et al. 2012
Bothrops asper — WALLACH et al. 2014: 115 
DistributionS Mexico (Veracruz, Puebla, Quéretaro, Tamaulipas southwards), Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama, Belize, Colombia, W Ecuador, Venezuela; elevation (Honduras): 880-1160 m, 0-1500 m (Colombia)

Type locality: Obispo, Darién, Panama. Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
TypesType: MCZ 2718, 2 heads.
Holotype: ANSP 9978; Ecuador, Pallatanga [xanthogrammus] 
CommentVenomous! The most dangerous venomous snake in Central America. Has often been confused with B. atrox and hence erroneously reported from Trinidad and El Salvador (W. Wüster, pers. comm.).

Nomenclature: The name xanthogrammus has priority over asper but asper is used by many authors inorder to maintain nomenclatural stability. See discussion in McDiarmid et al. (1999: 255).

Synonymy partly after PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970.

Relative abundance in Honduras: common; causes most snake bites in Costa Rica.

Reproduction: viviparous with up to 90 newborns

Max. total length: > 2m 
EtymologyNamed after Latin “asper” = rough. 
References
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