You are here » home advanced search Bothrops atrox

Bothrops atrox (LINNAEUS, 1758)

Find more photos by Google images search: Google images

Higher TaxaViperidae, Crotalinae, Serpentes (snakes) 
Subspecies 
Common NamesE: Barba Amarilla, Fer-de-Lance, common lancehead
G: Caicaca, Gewöhnliche Lanzenotter
NL: Gewone lanspuntslang 
SynonymColuber atrox LINNAEUS 1758: 222
Coluber lanceolatus LACÉPÈDE 1789
Bothrops furia WAGLER 1824: 52
Bothrops sabinii GRAY 1842: 47
Bothrops subscutatus GRAY 1842: 47
Trigonocephalus colombiensis HALLOWELL 1845: 246
Bothrops affinis GRAY 1849: 7
Bothrops atrox — DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1854: 1507
Bothrops asper GARMAN 1883
Lachesis lanceolatus — BOULENGER 1896
Bothrops lanceolatus — GARCIA 1896: 22
Trigonocephalus asper GARMAN 1883 (fide SCHÄTTI & KRAMER 1993)
Lachesis atrox — QUELCH 1899
Bothrops neuvoiedii venezuelenzi BRICEÑO 1934: 46
Trimeresurus atrox - POPE 1955
Bothrops atrox — PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970: 44
Bothrops isabelae SANDNER MONTILLA 1979
Bothrops atrox — GASC & RODRIGUES 1980
Bothrops lanceolatus aidae SANDNER MONTILLA 1981
Bothrops atrox aidae VANZOLINI 1986
Bothrops lanceolatus nacaritae SANDNER MONTILLA 1990
Bothrops atrox — WELCH 1994: 31
Bothrops isabelae — KORNACKER 1999: 169
Bothrops atrox — MCDIARMID, CAMPBELL & TOURÉ 1999: 256
Bothrops atrox — MONZEL & WÜSTER 2008
Bothrops isabelae — MONZEL & WÜSTER 2008
Bothrops isabelae — FENWICK et al. 2009
Bothrops atrox — FENWICK et al. 2009
Bothrops atrox — CARRASCO et al. 2012
Bothrops atrox — WALLACH et al. 2014: 116
Bothrops isabelae — WALLACH et al. 2014: 117 
DistributionGuyana, Surinam, French Guiana, Venezuela, Brazil (Pará, Acre etc.), Colombia, E Ecuador, NE/E Peru, N Bolivia, Trinidad

Type locality: “Asia” (in error); true locality unknown fide PETERS 1960.

colombiensis (invalid): N Venezuela; Type locality: Republic of Colombia, within 200 miles of Caracas.

aidae (invalid): Venezuela; Type locality: “Selvas de Guatopo, Estado Miranda”

isabelae (invalid): Venezuela; Type locality: "siete kilometros al SE. de Guanare, Estado Portuguesa, a pocos metros de la carretera que va de Guanare a Guanarito '" a 182 mts. sobre el nivel del mar" [= 7 km southeast of Guanare, Estado Portuguesa, Venezuela, elevation 182 m.].

nacaritae (invalid): Venezuela; Type locality: “Cariprima, N. de Valencia" Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
TypesSyntypes: NRM (NHRM) 100-101, was "Mus. Ad. Fr.".
Syntypes (2): ANSP 6974 and ANSP 6975 [colombiensis]
Holotype: "Live specimen in the Serpentario del Instituto Venezolano de Ofidiologia, Caracas, 15-61979." [isabelae] 
CommentVenomous!

Synonymy: Synonymy partly after PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970. Sandner-Montilla (1979a) synonymised B. colombiensis with B. lanceolatus. Not listed as such by WELCH 1994 or mentioned by FENWICK et al. 2009. Listed as synonym of B. atrox by KORNACKER 1999 and McDiarmid et al. 1999. RIVAS et al. 2012 consider the populations from Valencia and Guatopo as B. asper rather than B. atrox, except the population from the cloud forest that is B. venezuelensis. RIVAS et al. 2012 consider B. colombiensis as synonym of B. atrox. B. atrox may include a number of other nominal species, especially B. colombiensis, B. isabelae, B. leucurus, B. marajoensis, B. moojeni, B. pradoi. In addition, B. atrox has often been confused with B. asper.
Bothrops isabelae has been synonymized with B. atrox by MARKEZICH & TAPHORN 1993 and other authors but used as a valid species by Salomão et al. (1999) and KORNACKER 1999. Placed in the synonymy of Bothrops atrox atrox by Golay et aI. 1993 and McDiarmid et al. 1999. Markezich and Taphorn (1993) in a study on the variation of some populations of Venezuelan Bothrops concluded that B. isabelae is not valid and synonymised it with B. atrox. In all analyses by Fenwick et al. (2009), B. isabelae falls together with B. atrox, with a seemingly low genetic distance. Nevertheless, Fenwick et al. (2009) included B. isabelae in their list of Bothrops species (therefore apparently recognizing it as a valid taxon). RIVAS et al. 2012 consider B. isabelae as synonym of B. atrox. See also McDIARMID et al. (1999) for discussion.

Distribution: STUART (1935) reported this species from Guatemala (probably in error). MARTIN (1958) listed it for Mexico (Tamaulipas). “Cariprima” is not found on any available map, but both Estado Miranda and Valencia are in the Coastal Range [RIVAS et al. 2012].

Max total length: 200 cm

Reproduction: viviparous

Illustrations: Penner (2001). Plate 111 (p. 414) in Stebbins & McGinnis (2012) shows a Crotalus scutulatus, not C. atrox. 
References
  • Barrio-Amorós, César L. & Brewer-Carias, Charles 2008. Herpetological results of the 2002 expedition to Sarisari–ama, a tepui in Venezuelan Guayana, with the description of five new species. Zootaxa 1942: 1-68 - get paper here
  • BERNARDE, Paulo Sérgio; Jáson de Oliveira GOMES 2012. Serpentes peçonhentas e ofidismo em Cruzeiro do Sul, Alto Juruá, Estado do Acre, Brasil Acta Amazonica 42 (1): 65 - 72
  • Bernarde, Paulo Sérgio;, Reginaldo Assêncio Machado & Luiz Carlos Batista Turci 2011. Herpetofauna da área do Igarapé Esperança na Reserva Extrativista Riozinho da Liberdade, Acre – Brasil. Biota Neotrop. 11 (3): 117-144 - get paper here
  • Boos, H.E.A. 2001. The snakes of Trinidad and Tobago. Texas A&M University Press, 270 pp.
  • Briceno-Rossi, A.L. 1934. El problema del ofidismo en Venezuela. Bol. Min. Salubr. Agric. Cria, Venezuela, Caracas, 1: 1079-1177
  • Bueno Gavira, Rodrigo Samuel and Daniel Loebmann. 2011. Bothrops sp. (gr. atrox) (jararaca / lancehead) diet. Herpetological Review 42 (3): 436 - get paper here
  • Campbell, J.A. & Lamar, W.W. 1989. The Venomous Reptiles of Latin America. Comstock Publishing/Cornell University Press, Ithaca
  • CATENAZZI, A., LEHR, E. & VON MAY, R. 2013. The amphibians and reptiles of Manu National Park and its buffer zone, Amazon basin and eastern slopes of the Andes, Peru. Biota Neotrop. 13(4): 269-283
  • Claessen, H. 2006. De Slangen van de Guyana’s. Deel X. Lacerta 64 (3): 92-100 - get paper here
  • Dehling, D. Matthias & J. Maximilian Dehling 2008. Die Rauschuppige Lanzenotter – Bothrops asper (Garman, 1884). Draco 8 (33): 28-34 - get paper here
  • Duellman, W. E. 1978. The biology of an equatorial herpetofauna in Amazonian Ecuador. Misc. Publ. Univ. Kans. Mus. Nat. Hist. 65: 1-352 - get paper here
  • Duellman, W. E. 2005. Cusco Amazónico: The Lives of Amphibians and Reptiles in an Amazonian Rainforest. Comstock Pub Assoc.
  • Duellman, W.E., & Salas, A.W. 1991. Annotated checklist of the amphibians and reptiles of Cuzco Amazonico, Peru. Occas. Papers Mus. of Natur. Hist., Univ. of Kansas, Lawrence (143): 13 pp. - get paper here
  • Duméril, A. M. C., BIBRON, G. & DUMÉRIL, A. H. A., 1854. Erpétologie générale ou histoire naturelle complète des reptiles. Tome septième. Deuxième partie, comprenant l'histoire des serpents venimeux. Paris, Librairie Encyclopédique de Roret: i-xii + 781-1536 - get paper here
  • FENWICK, ALLYSON M.; RONALD L. GUTBERLET JR, JENNAFER A. EVANS, CHRISTOPHER L. PARKINSON 2009. Morphological and molecular evidence for phylogeny and classification of South American pitvipers, genera Bothrops, Bothriopsis, and Bothrocophias (Serpentes: Viperidae). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 156 (3): 617-640 - get paper here
  • Fraga, Rafael de; William E. Magnusson, Carlos R. Abrahão, Tania Sanaiotti, and Albertina P. Lima 2013. Habitat Selection by Bothrops atrox (Serpentes: Viperidae) in Central Amazonia, Brazil. Copeia Dec 2013, Vol. 2013, No. 4: 684-690. - get paper here
  • Garcia,E. 1896. Los Ofidios Venenosos del Cauca. Métodos empíricos y racionales empleados contra los accidentes producidos por la mordedura de esos reptiles. Cali: Librería Colombiana, xv + 102 pp.
  • Gasc & Rodrigues 1980. Liste preliminaire des Serpents de la Guyane francaise. Bull. Mus. Nat. Hist. Nat. Paris 2 (4): 559-598
  • Gorzula, Stefan & Senaris, J. Celsa 1999. In: Contribution to the herpetofauna of the Venezuelan Guayana. I: a data base. Scientia Guaianae, Caracas, No. 8 [1998], 269+ pp.; ISBN 980-6020-48-0
  • Gray, J. E. 1842. Synopsis of the species of Rattle snakes, or Family of Crotalidae. The Zoological Miscellany 2: 47- 51. - get paper here
  • Gray, J. E. 1849. Catalogue of the specimens of snakes in the collection of the British Museum. Edward Newman, London, i-xv; 1-125. - get paper here
  • Hallowell, E. 1845. Descriptions of reptiles from South America, supposed to be new. Proc. Acad. nat. Sci. Philad., 2: 241-247 - get paper here
  • Hirth, H. F. 1964. Observations on the fer-de-lance, Bothrops atrox, in coastal Costa Rica. Copeia 1964 (2): 453-454 - get paper here
  • Hoogmoed M.S.; de Avila-Pires T C S 1991. Annotoated checklist of the herpetofauna of Petit Saut, Sinnamary River, French Guiana. Zoologische Mededelingen 65: 53-88 - get paper here
  • Jansen, Martin 2008. Die Lanzenottern der Gattung Bothrops in Bolivien. Draco 8 (33): 50-56 - get paper here
  • Johnson, Jerry D. & Dixon, James R. 1984. Taxonomic status of the Venezuelan Macagua, Bothrops colombiensis. Journal of Herpetology 18 (3): 329-332 - get paper here
  • Kornacker,P.M. 1999. Checklist and key to the snakes of Venezuela. PaKo-Verlag, Rheinbach, Germany, 270 pp.
  • Lehr, E. 2002. Amphibien und Reptilien in Peru. Natur und Tier-Verlag (Münster), 208 pp. - get paper here
  • Lehr, E. & Lara, J. 2002. Die Schlangenfauna von Pozuzo (Peru) (Reptilia: Serpentes). Faun. Abh. Mus. Tierk. Dresden 22 (2): 353-359
  • Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentii Salvii, Holmiæ. 10th Edition: 824 pp. - get paper here
  • Manzani, Paulo Roberto;Arzabe, Cristina 1995. Bothrops atrox. Herpetological Review 26 (4): 209 - get paper here
  • Markezich, Alan L.; Taphorn, Donald C. 1993. A variational analysis of populations of Bothrops (Serpentes: Viperidae) from western Venezuela. Journal of Herpetology 27 (3): 248-254 - get paper here
  • Martin, Plul S. 1958. A biogeography of reptiles and amphibians in the Gomez Farias Region, Tamaulipas, Mexico. Miscellaneous publications, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan (101): 1-102 + 7 plates - get paper here
  • Martins, M.;Gordo, M. 1993. Bothrops atrox. Herpetological Review 24: 151-152 - get paper here
  • McDiarmid,R.W.; Campbell,J.A. & Touré,T.A. 1999. Snake species of the world. Vol. 1. Herpetologists’ League, 511 pp.
  • Mendes-Pinto, T. J. & S. Marques de Souza 2011. Preliminary assessment of amphibians and reptiles from Floresta Nacional do Trairão, with a new snake record for the Pará state, Brazilian Amazon. Salamandra 47 (4): 199-206 - get paper here
  • Miranda, Daniele Bazzo; Nathocley Mendes Venâncio, Saymon de Albuquerque 2014. Rapid survey of the herpetofauna in an area of forest management in eastern Acre, Brazil Check List 10 (4): 893-899 - get paper here
  • Monzel, Markus & Wolfgang Wüster 2008. Neotropische Grubenottern – Evolution, Biogeographie und Ökologie. Draco 8 (33): 4-27 - get paper here
  • Penner, J. 2001. Der grösste Schlangenzoo Lateinamerikas - ein Praktikum im “World of Snakes” Grecia, Costa Rica. Elaphe 9 (4): 81-85
  • Pérez-Santos,C. & Moreno,A.G. 1988. Ofidios de Colombia. Museo reegionale di Scienze Naturali, Torino, Monographie VI, 517 pp.
  • Phelps, T. 1981. Poisonous Snakes. Bland Ford Press, viii + 237 pp.
  • Quelch, J.J. 1899. The poisonous snakes of British Guiana. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (7) 3: 402-409 - get paper here
  • RIVAS, GILSON A.; CÉSAR R. MOLINA, GABRIEL N. UGUETO, TITO R. BARROS, CÉSAR L. BAR- RIO-AMORÓS & 2012. Reptiles of Venezuela: an updated and commented checklist. Zootaxa 3211: 1–64 - get paper here
  • Salomão, M.G., W. Wüster, R.S. Thorpe & BBBSP 1999. MtDNA phylogeny of Neotropical pitvipers of the genus Bothrops (Squamata: Serpentes: Viperidae). Kaupia (Darmstadt) (8): 127-134
  • Sandner-Montilla F 1979. Una nueva especie de genero Bothrops (Serpentes, Crotalidae, Bothropinae) de la region de Guanare, estado Portuguesa, Venezuela. MEMORIAS CIENTIFICA DE OFIDIOLOGIA (No. 4): 1-19
  • Schätti B; Kramer E 1993. Ecuadorianische Grubenottern der Gattungen Bothriechis, Bothrops und Porthidium (Serpentes: Viperidae). Revue Suisse de Zoologie 100 (2): 235-278 - get paper here
  • Schmidt, Karl P. & Walker, Warren F. 1943. Peruvian snakes from the University of Arequipa. Zoological Series of Field Museum of Zoology 24 (26): 279-296 - get paper here
  • Silva, F.M.; A.C. Menks; A.L.C. Prudente; J.C.L. Costa; A.E.M. Travassos; U. Galatti. 2011. Squamate Reptiles from municipality of Barcarena and surroundings, state of Pará, north of Brazil. Check List 7 (3): 220-226
  • Starace, Fausto 1998. Guide des Serpents et Amphisbènes de Guyane. IBIS Rouge Editions, Guadeloupe, Guyane, 450 pp.
  • Stebbins, R. C. and S. M. McGinnis 2012. Field Guide to Amphibians and Reptiles of California. Revised edition. University of California Press. Berkeley, CA, 552 pp. [ISBN 9780520244665] [review in Copeia, 2013(4):785-786]
  • Stuart, L. C. 1935. A contribution to a knowledge of the herpetology of a portion of the savanna region of Central Peten, Guatemala. University of Michigan Museum of Zoology Miscellaneous Publications 29: 1-56 - get paper here
  • Stuart, L. C. 1937. Some further notes on the amphibians and reptiles of the Peten Forest of Northern Guatemala. Copeia 1937 (1): 67-70 - get paper here
  • Trutnau, Ludwig 2008. Bemerkungen zur Naturgeschichte, Pflege und Nachzucht von Bothrops atrox (Linnaeus, 1758). Draco 8 (33): 80-83 - get paper here
  • Villa,J. 1984. The venomous snakes of Nicaragua. Milwaukee Publ. Mus. Contrib. Biol. & Geol. No. 59, 41 pp.
  • Vogt, R.C.; Ferrara, C.R.; Bernhard, R.; Carvalho, V.T.; Balensiefer, D.C.; Bonora, L.; Novelle, S.M 2007. Capítulo 9. Herpetofauna. p. 127-143. In: Rapp Py-Daniel, L.; Deus, C.P.; Henriques, A.L.; Pimpão, D.M.; Ribeiro, O.M. (orgs.). Biodiversidade do Médio Madeira: Bases científicas para propostas de conservação. INPA: Manaus, 244pp.
  • Wagler,J. 1824. Serpentum Brasiliensium species novae, ou histoire naturelle des espèces nouvelles de serpens. In: Jean de Spix, Animalia nova sive species novae. [NAtrix bahiensis: 27,. Monaco, Typis Franc. Seraph. Hübschmanni, vii + 75 pp.
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
  • Whithworth, A. & Beirne, C. 2011. Reptiles of the Yachana Reserve. Global Vision International, 130 pp. - get paper here
  • Wüster, Wolfgang; et al. 1996. Systematics of the Bothrops atrox Complex (Reptilia Serpentes: Viperidae) in Brazil: a Multivariate Analysis. Herpetologica 52 (2): 263 - get paper here
  • Wüster,W.; Salomão, M.G.; Duckett,G.J.; R.S. Thorpe & BBBSP 1999. Mitochondrial DNA phylogeny of the Bothrops atrox species complex (Squamata: Serpentes: Viperidae). Kaupia (Darmstadt) (8): 135-144
 
External links  
Is it interesting? Share with others:


Please submit feedback about this entry to the curator