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Bothrops atrox (LINNAEUS, 1758)

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Higher TaxaViperidae, Crotalinae, Serpentes (snakes) 
Subspecies 
Common NamesE: Barba Amarilla, Fer-de-Lance, common lancehead
G: Caicaca, Gewöhnliche Lanzenotter
NL: Gewone lanspuntslang 
SynonymColuber atrox LINNAEUS 1758: 222
Coluber lanceolatus LACÉPÈDE 1789
Bothrops furia WAGLER 1824: 52
Bothrops sabinii GRAY 1842: 47
Bothrops subscutatus GRAY 1842: 47
Trigonocephalus colombiensis HALLOWELL 1845: 246
Bothrops affinis GRAY 1849: 7
Bothrops atrox — DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1854: 1507
Bothrops asper GARMAN 1883
Lachesis lanceolatus — BOULENGER 1896
Bothrops lanceolatus — GARCIA 1896: 22
Trigonocephalus asper GARMAN 1883 (fide SCHÄTTI & KRAMER 1993)
Lachesis atrox — QUELCH 1899
Bothrops neuvoiedii venezuelenzi BRICEÑO 1934: 46
Trimeresurus atrox - POPE 1955
Bothrops atrox — PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970: 44
Bothrops atrox — GASC & RODRIGUES 1980
Bothrops lanceolatus aidae SANDNER MONTILLA 1981
Bothrops atrox aidae VANZOLINI 1986
Bothrops lanceolatus nacaritae SANDNER MONTILLA 1990
Bothrops atrox — WELCH 1994: 31
Bothrops atrox — MCDIARMID, CAMPBELL & TOURÉ 1999: 256
Bothrops atrox — MONZEL & WÜSTER 2008
Bothrops atrox — FENWICK et al. 2009
Bothrops atrox — CARRASCO et al. 2012 
DistributionGuyana, Surinam, French Guiana, Venezuela, Brazil (Pará etc.), Colombia, E Ecuador, NE/E Peru, N Bolivia, Trinidad

Type locality: “Asia” (in error); true locality unknown fide PETERS 1960.

colombiensis: N Venezuela; Type locality: Republic of Colombia, within 200 miles of Caracas.

aidae: Venezuela; Type locality: “Selvas de Guatopo, Estado Miranda”

nacaritae: Venezuela; Type locality: “Cariprima, N. de Valencia" Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
TypesSyntypes (2): "Mus. Ad. Fr." [Now in NRM (NHRM) 100-101].
Syntypes (2): ANSP 6974 and ANSP 6975 [colombiensis] 
CommentVenomous!

Synonymy: Sandner-Montilla (1979a) synonymised B. colombiensis with B. lanceolatus. Not listed as such by WELCH 1994 or mentioned by FENWICK et al. 2009. Listed as synonym of B. atrox by KORNACKER 1999 and McDiarmid et al. 1999. RIVAS et al. 2012 consider the populations from Valencia and Guatopo as B. asper rather than B. atrox, except the population from the cloud forest that is B. venezuelensis. RIVAS et al. 2012 consider B. colombiensis as synonym of B. atrox. Synonymy partly after PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970.

This species may include a number of other nominal species, especially B. colombiensis, B. isabelae, B. leucurus, B. marajoensis, B. moojeni,
B. pradoi. In addition, B. atrox has often been confused with B. asper. Bothrops isabelae has been synonymized with B. atrox by MARKEZICH & TAPHORN 1993 and other authors but used as a valid species by Salomão et al. (1999) and KORNACKER 1999. See also McDIARMID et al. (1999) for discussion.

Distribution: STUART (1935) reported this species from Guatemala (probably in error). MARTIN (1958) listed it for Mexico (Tamaulipas). “Cariprima” is not found on any available map, but both Estado Miranda and Valencia are in the Coastal Range [RIVAS et al. 2012].

Max total length: 200 cm

Reproduction: viviparous

Illustrations: Penner (2001). Plate 111 (p. 414) in Stebbins & McGinnis (2012) shows a Crotalus scutulatus, not C. atrox. 
References
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