You are here » home advanced search Bothrops bilineatus

Bothrops bilineatus (WIED-NEUWIED, 1821)

Can you confirm these amateur observations of Bothrops bilineatus?

Add your own observation of
Bothrops bilineatus »

Find more photos by Google images search: Google images

Higher TaxaViperidae, Crotalinae, Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
SubspeciesBothrops bilineatus bilineatus (WIED 1821)
Bothrops bilineatus smaragdinus HOGE 1966 
Common NamesE: Green Jararaca
G: Grüne Jararaca
E: Two-striped forest-pitviper [smaragdinus]
Portuguese: Bico-de-Papagaio, Cobra-Papagaio, Igbigracuã, Jararaca, Jararaca-Pinta-de-Ouro, Jararaca-Verde, Oricana, Ouricana, Papagaia, Paraamboia, Paramboia, Patioba, Periquitamboia, Pindoba, Pinta-de-Ouro, Surucucu-de-Ouricana, Surucucu-de-Patioba, Surucucu-de-Pindoba, Surucucu-Pinta-de-Ouro, Uriçana 
SynonymCophias bilineatus WIED-NEUWIED 1821: 339
Cophias bilineatus — WIED 1825: 483
Bothrops bilineatus — DUMÉRIL, BIBRON & DUMÉRIL 1854: 1514
Bothrops bilineatus — PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970: 44
Bothriopsis bilineatus — MEHRTENS 1987: 381
Bothriopsis bilineata — WELCH 1994
Bothrops bilineatus — SALOMÃO et al. 1997
Bothriopsis taeniata — PARKINSON 1999
Bothriopsis bilineata — MCDIARMID, CAMPBELL & TOURÉ 1999: 248
Bothriopsis bilineata — LEHR 2002: 102
Bothrops bilineatus — FEIO & CARAMASCHI 2003
Bothrops bilineatus — STARACE 1998: 381
Bothrops bilineatus — CLAESSEN 2006
Bothriopsis bilineata — FENWICK et al. 2009
Bothrops bilineata — CARRASCO et al. 2012
Bothriopsis bilineata — WALLACH et al. 2014: 109

Bothrops bilineatus bilineatus (WIED 1821)
Cophias bilineatus WIED-NEUWIED 1821
Cophias bilineatus WIED 1825
Lachesis bilineatus DUMÉRIL, BIBRON & DUMÉRIL 1854
Trigonocephalus (Bothrops) arboreus COPE 1870: 157
Bothrops bilineatus bilineatus — HOGE 1966: 114
Bothrops bilineatus bilineatus — PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970: 44
Bothrops bilineatus bilineatus — GASC & RODRIGUES 1980
Bothriopsis bilineata bilineata — WELCH 1994: 31
Bothrops bilineatus bilineatus — KORNACKER 1999
Bothrops bilineatus bilineatus — CARRASCO et al. 2012

Bothrops bilineatus smaragdinus HOGE 1966
Bothrops bilineatus smaragdinus HOGE 1966: 114
Bothrops bilineatus smaragdinus — PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970: 45
Bothrops bilineatus smaragdinus — DUELLMAN 1978: 264
Bothriopsis bilineata smaragdina — WELCH 1994: 31
Bothriopsis bilineatus smaragdinus — TOUZET 1997
Bothrops bilineatus smaragdinus — KORNACKER 1999
Bothriopsis bilineata smaragdina — HARVEY 2005: 4
Bothrops bilineatus smaragdinus — MONZEL & WÜSTER 2008
Bothriopsis bilineata smaragdina — WHITHWORTH & BEIRNE 2011
Bothrops bilineatus smaragdinus — CARRASCO et al. 2012
Bothriopsis bilineata smaragdina — SWITAK 2014 
DistributionBrazil (Bahia, Minas Gerais, Amazonas, Mato Grosso, Rondônia, Espírito Santo, etc.), S/SE Venezuela, S Colombia, E Ecuador (Amazonian areas), N Bolivia, E/NE Peru (Pasco etc.), Guyana, Surinam, French Guiana

bilineata: Venezuela, Guyana, Suriname, French Guyana and Brazil (Maranhão, Pará, Amapá, Roraima, from Bahia to Rio de Janeiro states); Type locality: Marobá, Rio Peruhype, Estado da Bahia, Brazil.

smaragdina: Amazonian forests of Bolivia, Peru, Ecuador, Colombia, S Venezuela, Brazil (Acre, Amazonas, Rondonia); Type locality: Upper Rio Perús [Purus], Estado Amazonas, Brazil

arboreus: Type locality: Brazil, nr. Bahia;  
TypesType: Unlocated (McDiarmid et al. 1999)
Holotype: ANSP 7014 [arboreus]
Holotype: IBSP (also as IB = Instituto Butantan) 14731 [smaragdinus] 
DiagnosisDiagnosis (smaragdina): Bothriopsis bilineata smaragdina is distinguished from all congeners and from species of Bothrocophias and Bothrops by the following combination of characters: (1) lacunolabial present; (2) dorsal keels nontuberculate; (3) infralabials and gulars pigmented to varying degrees but lacking regular series of cream round or C-shaped marks; (4) canthorostrals absent; (5) most subcaudals divided; (6) ventrals 192–220 and subcaudals 55–76 (Campbell and Lamar 1989); (7) loreal subtriangular, higher than long; (8) canthals broad and separated by 2–5 scales; (9) internasals in contact; (10) postocular stripe poorly defined or absent; (11) dorsum pastel green, finely peppered with black; dorsal bands absent; broken yellow paraventral stripe extending length of body (Harvey 2005: 4). 

Synonymy partly after PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970.

Type: location unknown fide PETERS 1960.

Habitat: fully arboreal (Harrington et al. 2018). 
  • Beebe, William 1946. Field notes on the snakes of Kartabo, British Guiana, and Caripito, Venezuela. Zoologica 31: 11-52 - get paper here
  • BERNARDE, P.S., ALBUQUERQUE, S., BARROS, T.O. & TURCI, L.C.B. 2012. Serpentes do Estado de Rondônia, Brasil. Biota Neotropica 12 (3): 1-29 - get paper here
  • Bernarde, P.S.; H.C. Costa; R.A. Machado; V.A. São-Pedro. 2011. Bothriopsis bilineata bilineata (Wied, 1821) (Serpentes: Viperidae): New records in the states of Amazonas, Mato Grosso and Rondônia, northern Brazil. Check List 7 (3): 343-347 - get paper here
  • BERNARDE, Paulo Sérgio; Jáson de Oliveira GOMES 2012. Serpentes peçonhentas e ofidismo em Cruzeiro do Sul, Alto Juruá, Estado do Acre, Brasil. Acta Amazonica 42 (1): 65 - 72 - get paper here
  • Campbell, J.A. & Lamar, W.W. 1989. The Venomous Reptiles of Latin America. Comstock Publishing/Cornell University Press, Ithaca
  • Carrasco, P.A., C.I. Mattoni, G.C. Leynaud, and G.J. Scrocchi. 2012. Morphology, phylogeny and taxonomy of South American bothropoid pitvipers (Serpentes, Viperidae). Zoologica Scripta 41: 109-124 - get paper here
  • CATENAZZI, A., LEHR, E. & VON MAY, R. 2013. The amphibians and reptiles of Manu National Park and its buffer zone, Amazon basin and eastern slopes of the Andes, Peru. Biota Neotropica 13 (4): 269-283
  • Claessen, H. 2006. De Slangen van de Guyana’s. Deel X. Lacerta 64 (3): 92-100 - get paper here
  • Cole, Charles J.; Carol R. Townsend, Robert P. Reynolds, Ross D. MacCulloch, and Amy Lathrop 2013. Amphibians and reptiles of Guyana, South America: illustrated keys, annotated species accounts, and a biogeographic synopsis. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 125 (4): 317-578; plates: 580-620 - get paper here
  • Cope, E.D. 1870. Seventh contribution to the herpetology of tropical America. Proc. Amer. Philos. Soc. 11: 147-169 [1869] - get paper here
  • Dal Vechio F, Prates I, Grazziotin FG, Zaher H, Rodrigues MT. 2018. Phylogeography and historical demography of the arboreal pit viper Bothrops bilineatus (Serpentes, Crotalinae) reveal multiple connections between Amazonian and Atlantic rain forests. J Biogeogr. 45: 2415–2426 - get paper here
  • De Almeida, B J L; De Almeida, M S M; Cavalcante, C S & Bernarde, P S; 2019. Bothrops bilineatus bilineatus (Two-striped Forest Pitviper) Reproduction. Herpetological Review 50 (2): 385-386 - get paper here
  • Debeux, M J M; Vilela, H A L S; De Andrade, A B & Bernarde, P S; 2019. Bothrops bilineatus bilineatus (Two-striped Forest Pitviper) Habitat use. Herpetological Review 50 (2): 385 - get paper here
  • Dubeux, M. J. M., Araújo Neto, J. V. D., Triburcio, I. C. S., Lisboa, B. S., Torquato, S., Freitas, M. A. D., ... & Mott, T. 2022. A “hotspot” within a hotspot: the reptiles of the Estação Ecológica and Área de Proteção Ambiental de Murici, Atlantic Forest of northeastern Brazil. Biota Neotropica, 22: 1-14 - get paper here
  • Duellman, W. E. 1978. The biology of an equatorial herpetofauna in Amazonian Ecuador. Misc. Publ. Univ. Kans. Mus. Nat. Hist. 65: 1-352 - get paper here
  • Duellman, W. E. 2005. Cusco Amazónico: The Lives of Amphibians and Reptiles in an Amazonian Rainforest. Comstock Pub Assoc.
  • Duméril, A. M. C., Bibron, G. & DUMÉRIL, A. H. A., 1854. Erpétologie générale ou histoire naturelle complète des reptiles. Tome septième. Deuxième partie, comprenant l'histoire des serpents venimeux. Paris, Librairie Encyclopédique de Roret: i-xii + 781-1536 - get paper here
  • Feio, R.N. & Caramaschi, U. 2003. Contribuição ao conhecimento da herpetofauna do nordeste do estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil. Phyllomedusa 1 (2): 105-111 [2002] - get paper here
  • Fonseca, Wirven Lima da; Andesson de Souza Oliveira, Radraque Rodrigues Correa, Paulo Sergio Bernarde 2019. Caudal luring in the Neotropical two-striped forest pitviper Bothrops bilineatus smaragdinus Hoge, 1966 in the Western Amazon. Herpetology Notes 12: 365-374 - get paper here
  • Fonseca, Wirven Lima da; Radraque Rodrigues Correa, Andesson de Souza Oliveira, Igor Soares de Oliveira, Paulo Sergio Bernarde 2021. Habitat use and activity of Bothrops bilineatus smaragdinus Hoge, 1966 in the western Brazilian Amazon (Serpentes: Viperidae). Herpetology Notes 14: 567-580
  • França, R. C., França, F. G., Rödder, D., & Solé, M. 2022. Historical collection of snakes from Brazil by herpetologist and biogeographer Paul Müller (1940–2010), deposited at the Zoological Research Museum Alexander Koenig, Germany. Bonn zoological Bulletin 71 (1): 41–49 - get paper here
  • Freitas, M. A. de, Venancio, N. M., Abegg, A. D., Azevedo, W. S, Pereira, V. O., Zanotti, A. P., Veloso, A., Schwarzbach, L., Oliveira, A. G., da Silva, R. C. C., de Amorim, V. R. G. and de Moura, G. J. B. 2020. Herpetofauna at the Rio Acre Ecological Station, Amazon Rainforest, Brazil. Herpetology Notes 13: 33-48. - get paper here
  • Freitas, Marco Antonio de 2014. Squamate reptiles of the Atlantic Forest of northern Bahia, Brazil. Check List 10 (5): 1020-1030 - get paper here
  • Freitas, Marco Antonio de; Arthur Diesel Abegg, Iuri Ribeiro Dias, Elbano Paschoal de Figueiredo Moraes 2018. Herpetofauna from Serra da Jibóia, an Atlantic Rainforest remnant in the state of Bahia, northeastern Brazil. Herpetology Notes 11: 59-72 - get paper here
  • Freitas, Marco Antonio de; Arthur Diesel Abegg, Thais Figueiredo Santos Silva, Patrícia Mendes Fonseca, Breno Hamdan, Thiago Filadelfo 2019. Herpetofauna of Serra do Timbó, an Atlantic Forest remnant in the State of Bahia, Northeastern Brazil. Herpetology Notes 12: 245-260 - get paper here
  • Gasc & Rodrigues 1980. Liste preliminaire des Serpents de la Guyane francaise. Bull. Mus. Nat. Hist. Nat. Paris 2 (4): 559-598
  • Gonzalez R. C. et al. 2020. Lista dos Nomes Populares dos Répteis no Brasil – Primeira Versão. Herpetologia Brasileira 9 (2): 121 – 214 - get paper here
  • Grego, K. F., Fernandes, W., Croce, A. P., Vasconcellos, D. R., Sant'Anna, S. S. & Coragem, J. T. 2012. Bothriopsis bilineata smaragdinus (green jararaca) reproduction. Herpetological Review 43: 492 - get paper here
  • Hamdan, B. & R. M. Lira-da-Silva 2012. The snakes of Bahia State, northeastern Brazil: species richness, composition and biogeographical notes. Salamandra 48 (1): 31-50 - get paper here
  • Harrington, Sean M; Jordyn M de Haan, Lindsey Shapiro, Sara Ruane 2018. Habits and characteristics of arboreal snakes worldwide: arboreality constrains body size but does not affect lineage diversification. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 125 (1): 61–71 - get paper here
  • Harvey, M.B.; et al. 2005. Revision of the venomous snakes of Bolivia. II. The pitvipers (Serpentes: Viperidae). Annals of the Carnegie Museum 74 (1): 1-38. - get paper here
  • Hoge, A.R. 1966. Preliminary account on Neotropical Crotalinae (Serpentes: Viperidae). Mem. Inst. Butantan 32 [1965]: 109-184 - get paper here
  • Kornacker,P.M. 1999. Checklist and key to the snakes of Venezuela. PaKo-Verlag, Rheinbach, Germany, 270 pp.
  • Lehr, E. 2001. New records for amphibians and reptiles from Departamentos Pasco and Ucayali, Peru. Herpetological Review 32 (2): 130-132 - get paper here
  • Lehr, E. 2002. Amphibien und Reptilien in Peru. Natur und Tier-Verlag (Münster), 208 pp. - get paper here
  • Llanqui IB, Salas CY, Oblitas MP 2019. A preliminary checklist of amphibians and reptiles from the vicinity of La Nube Biological Station, Bahuaja-Sonene National Park, Peru. Check List 15 (5): 773–796 - get paper here
  • Mattison, Chris 2007. The New Encyclopedia of Snakes. Princeton University Press
  • McDiarmid, R.W.; Campbell, J.A. & Touré,T.A. 1999. Snake species of the world. Vol. 1. [type catalogue] Herpetologists’ League, 511 pp.
  • Monzel, Markus & Wolfgang Wüster 2008. Neotropische Grubenottern – Evolution, Biogeographie und Ökologie. Draco 8 (33): 4-27 - get paper here
  • Moraes LJCL, Almeida AP, Fraga R, Rojas RR, Pirani RM, Silva AAA, de Carvalho VT, Gordo M, Werneck FP 2017. Integrative overview of the herpetofauna from Serra da Mocidade, a granitic mountain range in Northern Brazil . ZooKeys 715: 103-159 - get paper here
  • Natera-Mumaw, Marco; Luis Felipe Esqueda-González & Manuel Castelaín-Fernández 2015. Atlas Serpientes de Venezuela. Santiago de Chile, Dimacofi Negocios Avanzados S.A., 456 pp. - get paper here
  • Nogueira, Cristiano C.; Antonio J.S. Argôlo, Vanesa Arzamendia, Josué A. Azevedo, Fausto E. Barbo, Renato S. Bérnils, Bruna E. Bolochio, Marcio Borges-Martins, Marcela Brasil-Godinho, Henrique Braz, Marcus A. Buononato, Diego F. Cisneros-Heredia, 2019. Atlas of Brazilian snakes: verified point-locality maps to mitigate the Wallacean shortfall in a megadiverse snake fauna. South American J. Herp. 14 (Special Issue 1):1-274 - get paper here
  • Oliveira, Jane C.F.; Rodrigo Castellari Gonzalez; Paulo Passos; Davor Vrcibradic & Carlos Frederico Duarte Rocha 2020. Non-Avian Reptiles of the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: status of knowledge and commented list. Pap. Avulsos Zool. 60: e20206024 - get paper here
  • O’Shea, M. 2018. The Book of Snakes. Ivy Press / Quarto Publishing, London, - get paper here
  • Parkinson,C.L. 1999. Molecular systematics and biogeographical history of pitvipers as determined by mitochondrial ribosomal DNA sequences. Copeia 1999 (3): 576-586 - get paper here
  • Pérez-Santos,C. & Moreno, A.G. 1988. Ofidios de Colombia. Museo reegionale di Scienze Naturali, Torino, Monographie VI, 517 pp.
  • Peters , J. A. 1960. The snakes of Ecuador; check list and key. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard 122: 489-541 - get paper here
  • Quelch, J.J. 1899. The poisonous snakes of British Guiana. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (7) 3: 402-409 - get paper here
  • Rabosky, Daniel L.; Rudolf von May, Michael C. Grundler and Alison R. Davis Rabosky 2019. The Western Amazonian Richness Gradient for Squamate Reptiles: Are There Really Fewer Snakes and Lizards in Southwestern Amazonian Lowlands? Diversity 11: 199; doi:10.3390/d11100199 - get paper here
  • Resende, Flávia Cappuccio de (coord.) 2023. O fantástico mundo dos animais peçonhentos: serpentes; características, história natural e reconhecimento das espécies peçonhentas de Minas Gerais. Belo Horizonte – Fundação Ezequiel Dias - get paper here
  • RIVAS, GILSON A.; CÉSAR R. MOLINA, GABRIEL N. UGUETO, TITO R. BARROS, CÉSAR L. BAR- RIO-AMORÓS & PHILIPPE J. R. KOK 2012. Reptiles of Venezuela: an updated and commented checklist. Zootaxa 3211: 1–64 - get paper here
  • Roberto, I. J., R. W. Ávila & A. R. Melgarejo 2015. Répteis (Testudines, Squamata, Crocodylia) da reserva biológica de Pedra Talhada. In: Atuder, A., l. Nusbaumer & R. Spichiger (eds.). biodiversidade da reserva biológica de Pedra talhada (alagoas, Pernambuco - brasil). Boissiera 68: 357-375 - get paper here
  • Rojas-Padilla O, Menezes VQ, Dias IR, Argôlo AJS, Solé M, Orrico VGD 2020. Amphibians and reptiles of Parque Nacional da Serra das Lontras: an important center of endemism within the Atlantic Forest in southern Bahia, Brazil. ZooKeys 1002: 159-185 - get paper here
  • Salomão, M.G., W. Wüster, R.S. Thorpe & BBBSP 1997. DNA evolution of South American pitvipers of the genus Bothrops. In R.S. Thorpe, W. Wüster & A. Malhotra (Eds.), Venomous Snakes: Ecology, Evolution and Snakebite. Symposia of the Zoological Society of London, No. 70, Pp. 89-98. Clarendon Press, Oxford. - get paper here
  • Salomão, M.G., W. Wüster, R.S. Thorpe & BBBSP 1999. MtDNA phylogeny of Neotropical pitvipers of the genus Bothrops (Squamata: Serpentes: Viperidae). Kaupia (Darmstadt) (8): 127-134
  • Silva-Soares, T.; R.B. Ferreira; R.O.L. Salles; C.F.D. Rocha. 2011. Continental, insular and coastal marine reptiles from the municipality of Vitória, state of Espírito Santo, southeastern Brazil. Check List 7 (3): 290-298 - get paper here
  • Solé, Mirco 2015. Auf der Suche nach der seltensten Giftschlange Südamerikas. Terraria-Elaphe 2015 (6): 50-53 - get paper here
  • Starace, Fausto 1998. Guide des Serpents et Amphisbènes de Guyane. IBIS Rouge Editions, Guadeloupe, Guyane, 450 pp.
  • Starace, Fausto 2013. Guide des Serpents et Amphisbènes de Guyane. Ibis Rouge Editions, Matoury, Guyane, ISBN 978-2-84450-407-4 - get paper here
  • Switak, K.-H. 2014. Den mächtigen Amazonas entlang. Im herpetologischen Paradies. Reptilia (Münster) 19 (108): 76-85
  • Torres-Carvajal O, Pazmiño-Otamendi G, Salazar-Valenzuela D. 2019. Reptiles of Ecuador: a resource-rich portal, with a dynamic checklist and photographic guides. Amphibian & Reptile Conservation 13 (1): [General Section]: 209–229 (e178) - get paper here
  • Touzet, Jean Marc 1997. Bothriopsis bilineatus smaragdinus: Ecuador's eye-grabbing emerald. Reptiles 5 (8): 40-46
  • Valencia, J. H., K. Garzón-Tello & M. E. Barragán-Paladines 2016. Serpientes venenosas del Ecuador: sistemática, taxonomía, historia natural, conservación, envenenamiento y aspectos antropológicos. Quito, Ecuador, Fundación Herpetológica Gustavo Orcés, Universidad de Texas, Fondo Ambiental Nacional, 652 pp. [review in HR 49 (1): 152, 2018]
  • Vaz-Silva, W.; RM Oliveira, AFN Gonzaga, KC Pinto, FC Poli, TM Bilce, M Penhacek, L Wronski, JX Martins, TG Junqueira, LCC, Cesca VY, Guimarães RD. Pinheiro 2015. Contributions to the knowledge of amphibians and reptiles from Volta Grande do Xingu, northern Brazil Braz. J. Biol., 75 (3) (suppl.): S205-S218 - get paper here
  • Venegas Ibañez, Pablo Javier; Chávez-Arribasplata, Juan Carlos; Almora García, Eduardo; Grilli, Pablo; Duran Centeno, Vilma 2019. New observations on diet of the South American two-striped forest-pitviper Bothrops bilineatus smaragdinus (Hoge, 1966). Cuad. herpetol. 33 (1): - get paper here
  • Venegas, Pablo J.; Giuseppe Gagliardi-Urrutia y Marco Odicio 2014. ANFIBIOS Y REPTILES. In: Pitman et al. 2014, Peru: Cordillera Escalera-Loreto. The Field Museum, Chicago - get paper here
  • Viana, P. F., Ezaz, T., de Bello Cioffi, M., Liehr, T., Al-Rikabi, A., Goll, L. G., ... & Feldberg, E. 2020. Landscape of snake’sex chromosomes evolution spanning 85 MYR reveals ancestry of sequences despite distinct evolutionary trajectories. Scientific Reports, 10(1): 1-14 (12499) - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
  • Whithworth, A. & Beirne, C. 2011. Reptiles of the Yachana Reserve. Global Vision International, 130 pp. - get paper here
  • Wied-Neuwied, M. Prinz zu 1821. Reise nach Brasilien in den Jahren 1815 bis 1817. Vol. 2. Heinrich Ludwig Bronner, Frankfurt. - get paper here
  • Wied-Neuwied, M. Prinz zu 1825. Beiträge zur Naturgeschichte von Brasilien. Weimar, no. 1, xxii + 612 pp. - get paper here
External links  
Is it interesting? Share with others:

Please submit feedback about this entry to the curator