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Bothrops lanceolatus (BONNATERRE, 1790)

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Higher TaxaViperidae, Crotalinae, Serpentes (snakes) 
Subspecies 
Common NamesMartinique Lancehead 
SynonymColuber lanceolatus LACÉPÈDE 1789: 80
Lachesis lanceolatus LACÉPÈDE 1789
Coluber Lanceolatus BONNATERRE 1790: 10
Coluber megaera SHAW 1802
Bothrops lanceolatus — DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1854: 1505
Lachesis lanceolatus — BARBOUR 1905: 101
Bothrops lanceolata — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1991: 593
Bothrops lanceolatus — WELCH 1994: 33
Bothrops lanceolatus — MCDIARMID, CAMPBELL & TOURÉ 1999: 264
Bothrops lanceolatus — FENWICK et al. 2009
Bothrops lanceolatus — CARRASCO et al. 2012 
DistributionLesser Antilles: Martinique

Type locality: Unknown; restricted to Morne Capot, between Ajoupa-Bouillon and Le Lorrain, Martinique, by Lazell, 1964.  
TypesSyntypes: Evidently no longer extant. 
CommentVenomous!

Illustrations: see Lazell, 1964; Dowling, 1965; Pinchon, 1967; Gosner, 1987; Campbell and Lamar, 1989.

Type species: Bothrops lanceolatus (Bonnaterre, 1790) is the type species of the genus Bothrops WAGLER 1824 (fide FENWICK et al. 2009).

Synonymy: Kaiser et al. 2013 considered the generic names Daraninus Hoser 2012, Jackyhoserea Hoser 2012 invalid and rejected their use instead of Bothrops.

Diagnosis (genus): Bothrops differs from other South American pitvipers in 50 mitichondrial characters (Table 4). In addition, Bothrops species generally have four palatine teeth, which is a morphological synapomorphy of the genus (B. moojeni and B. j South American genera by having higher numbers of ventrals (157–236 and 153–227, respectively, compared with 125–206), and by having the prelacunal fused to the second supralabial (also seen in Bothropoides jararaca, B. alcatraz, B. insularis, and in some Bothrocophias). Bothrops is distinguished from Bothriopsis in its brown to black coloration and lack of a prehensile tail, except for Bothrops osbornei and Bothrops punctatus with prehensile tails. These two Bothrops species occur west of the Andes, as opposed to Bothriopsis species that all range east of the Andes.araracussu have five; B. brazili and B. sanctaecrucis have three). Bothriopsis and Bothrops are distinguished from other South American genera by having higher numbers of ventrals (157–236 and 153–227, respectively, compared with 125–206), and by having the prelacunal fused to the second supralabial (also seen in Bothropoides jararaca, B. alcatraz, B. insularis, and in some Bothrocophias). Bothrops is distinguished from Bothriopsis in its brown to black coloration and lack of a prehensile tail, except for Bothrops osbornei and Bothrops punctatus with prehensile tails. These two Bothrops species occur west of the Andes, as opposed to Bothriopsis species that all range east of the Andes [from FENWICK et al. 2009]. 
EtymologyEtymology (genus): The generic name is derived from the Greek bothros, referring to the facial pit, and ops, meaning either ‘eye’ or ‘face’. It refers to the loreal pit between the nostril and eye, and names ending in this suffix are masculine. 
References
  • Amaral, A. D. 1954. Contribuicao ao conhecimento dos ofidios neotropicos: XXXV. A proposito da revalidacao de Coluber lanceolatus Lacepede, 1789 Mem. Inst. Butantan 26: 207-214
  • Barbour, T. in: Bangs, Outram; Brown, Wilmont W.; Thayer, John E.; Barbour, Thomas 1905. The Vertebrata of Gorgona Island, Colombia. 1 Introduction. Mammalia. 2. Physical aspect and climate; Fauna. 3 Aves. 4 Reptilia; Amphibia. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard 46 (5): 87-102 - get paper here
  • Bonnaterre, P.J. 1790. Ophiologie, in Tableau encyclopédique et méthodique des trois règnes de la nature. Panconoke, Paris, XLIV + 76 pp + 43 plates - get paper here
  • Campbell, J.A. & Lamar, W.W. 1989. The Venomous Reptiles of Latin America. Comstock Publishing/Cornell University Press, Ithaca
  • Dowling, H.G. 1965. The puzzle of Bothrops; or, a tangle of serpents. Anim. King. 68(1):18-21.
  • Duméril, A. M. C., BIBRON, G. & DUMÉRIL, A. H. A., 1854. Erpétologie générale ou histoire naturelle complète des reptiles. Tome septième. Deuxième partie, comprenant l'histoire des serpents venimeux. Paris, Librairie Encyclopédique de Roret: i-xii + 781-1536 - get paper here
  • FENWICK, ALLYSON M.; RONALD L. GUTBERLET JR, JENNAFER A. EVANS, CHRISTOPHER L. PARKINSON 2009. Morphological and molecular evidence for phylogeny and classification of South American pitvipers, genera Bothrops, Bothriopsis, and Bothrocophias (Serpentes: Viperidae). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 156 (3): 617-640 - get paper here
  • Gosner,K.L. 1987. Observations on Lesser Antillean Pit Vipers. Journal of Herpetology 21 (1): 78-80 - get paper here
  • Hoge, Alphonse Richard 1952. Revalidato de Bothrops lanceolata (Lacépéde). Memórias do Instito Butantan 24 (2): 231-236
  • Hoser, R. 2012. A new genus of pitviper (Serpentes: Viperidae) from South America. Australasian Journal of Herpetology 11: 25-27 - get paper here
  • Kaiser, H.; Crother, B.I.; Kelly, C.M.R.; Luiselli, L.; O’Shea, M.; Ota, H.; Passos, P.; Schleip, W. 2013. Best Practices: In the 21st Century, Taxonomic Decisions in Herpetology are Acceptable Only When Supported by a Body of Evidence and Published via Peer-Review. Herpetological Review 44 (1): 8-23
  • Lacepède, B. G. E. 1789. Histoire Naturelle des Quadrupèdes Ovipares et de Serpens. Vol.2. lmprimerie du Roi, Hôtel de Thou, Paris, 671 pp. - get paper here
  • Lazell, James D., Jr. 1964. The Lesser Antillean representatives of Bothrops and Constrictor. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard 132 (3): 245-273 - get paper here
  • McDiarmid,R.W.; Campbell,J.A. & Touré,T.A. 1999. Snake species of the world. Vol. 1. Herpetologists’ League, 511 pp.
  • Pinchon, Père R. 1967. I. -Les serpents de la Martinique. In: Quelques Aspects de la Nature aux Antilles. MM. Ozanne et Cie., Caen:9-30.
  • Salomão, M.G., W. Wüster, R.S. Thorpe & BBBSP 1999. MtDNA phylogeny of Neotropical pitvipers of the genus Bothrops (Squamata: Serpentes: Viperidae). Kaupia (Darmstadt) (8): 127-134
  • Schwartz,A. & Henderson,R.W. 1991. Amphibians and Reptiles of the West Indies. University of Florida Press, Gainesville, 720 pp.
 
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