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Bothrops otavioi BARBO, GRAZZIOTIN, SAZIMA, MARTINS & SAWAYA, 2012

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Higher TaxaViperidae, Crotalinae, Colubroidea, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes) 
Subspecies 
Common Names 
SynonymBothrops otavioi BARBO, GRAZZIOTIN, SAZIMA, MARTINS & SAWAYA 2012
Bothrops jararaca — CICCHI et al. 2007:227 (in part)
Bothrops otavioi — WALLACH et al. 2014: 118 
DistributionBrazil (São Paulo)

Type locality: “Trilha da Vitória’’ (23°44’28’’S, 45°01’16’’W; datum = WGS 84; Vitória Island, Ilhabela Archipelago, São Paulo, southeastern Brazil Map legend:
Type locality - Type locality.
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
Reproduction 
TypesHolotype: IBSP 78572 (field number CC58), male, collected 11 August 2010 by F.C. Centeno and T.H. Condez, (Figs. 2–4A). We deposited a tissue sample at the herpetological collection of MZUSP.
Paratypes.—Twenty specimens from the type locality: IBSP 18866–67, males; IBSP 18868, female; IBSP 18870–71, females; IBSP 18872–73, males; IBSP 18874–75, females; IBSP 18876–77, males; IBSP 18879–81, fe- males; IBSP 18882, male, and ZUEC 3551 female, collected March 1960 by A.R. Hoge (Instituto Butantan expedition); MZUSP 3949 female, MZUSP 3951 male; MZUSP 3952 female, and ZUEC 3550 male, collected 14– 28 March 1964 by the Departamento de Zoologia (DZ) expedition. 
CommentDiagnosis.—The new species is similar to B. jararaca (Fig. 4A, Table 1), and is distin- guished from this latter species by the combination of characters listed below (B. jararaca in parentheses). Smaller adult size in males: range SVL 1⁄4 388–475 mm, n 1⁄4 4 (versus range SVL 1⁄4 635–1000 mm, n 1⁄4 46); few and larger scales at the intersupraocular row: range 1⁄4 three–six scales (versus range five–nine scales); lower number of ventral scales in males: 182–190 (versus 200–211); lower number of ventral scales in females: 185–192 (versus 190–218); lower number of subcaudal scales in males: 54–61 (versus 62– 72); lower number of anterior cephalic scales, generally rounded and with no or feeble keels: range 1⁄4 20–44 (versus range 27–61, generally elongate and distinctly keeled). The hemi- penis of B. otavioi sp. nov. (Fig. 5A) has few diminutive ossified spines bordering calyces and they are restricted to the basal region of the capitulum (versus many small ossified spines reaching the medial region of the capitulum, Fig. 5B); intersulcar region nude (versus intrasulcar region with small ossified spines). Bothrops otavioi sp. nov. is further distinguished from B. jararaca by the absence of diminutive ossified spines from the sulcus spermaticus to the base of the calyces.
From B. alcatraz, another small, island- dwelling species, B. otavioi sp. nov., can be distinguished by its lower number of inter- supraocular scales: three–six (versus six–eight scales); higher number of ventral scales in males: 182–190 (versus 173–182); higher number of ventral scales in females: 185–192 (versus 175–186); higher number of subcaudal scales in males: 54–61 (versus 47–54); relatively longer tail in males (ratio TL/SVL 6 SD): 0.169 6 0.010 (versus 0.161 6 0.007) and in females: 0.146 6 0.016 (versus 0.138 6 0.011); relatively longer head in males (ratio HL/TR): 0.057 6 0.004 (versus 0.053 6 0.003) and females: 0.061 6 0.008 (versus 0.055 6 0.003). Bothrops otavioi sp. nov. is distinguished from B. insularis, a larger island-dwelling species of the B. jararaca group, mainly by its brownish color pattern (pale or yellowish in B. insularis), lower number of intersupraocular scales: 3–6 (versus 7–9), lower number of anterior cephalic scales: 20–44 (versus 47–64), and smaller adult size in males: SVL 1⁄4 388–475 mm (versus 393–788 mm). The new species overlaps with B. insularis in number of ventral scales: 182–190 (versus 171–188) in males, and 185–192 (versus 176–195) in females; and subcaudal scales: 54–61 (versus 55–65) in males, and 48–54 (versus 48–59) in females.
Regarding haplotype genealogy, Bothrops otavioi sp. nov. is nested within the northern clade of Bothrops jararaca group sensu Grazziotin et al. (2006; Fig. 6). The new species has the most common cytb haplotype within the northern clade of B. jararaca group, sharing the same sequence with populations from Alcatrazes Island, northern Sao Paulo, and the continental coastal slope to lowlands (Fig. 6) [from BARBO et al. 2012]. 
EtymologyEtymology.—The specific epithet otavioi honors our friend and colleague Otavio A. V. Marques, a prominent herpetologist at the Instituto Butantan, for his great contribution to the study of natural history and conserva- tion of Brazilian snakes. We suggest the standard English name ‘‘Vito ́ria’s Lancehead’’ for the new species. 
References
  • BARBO, <br />FAUSTO E.; JOÃO LUIZ GASPARINI, ANTONIO P. ALMEIDA, HUSSAM ZAHER, FELIPE G. GRAZZIOTIN, RODRIGO B. GUSMÃO, JOSÉ MÁRIO G. FERRARINI<br />& RICARDO J. SAWAYA 2016. Another new and threatened species of lancehead genus Bothrops (Serpentes, Viperidae) from Ilha dos Franceses, Southeastern Brazil Zootaxa 4097 (4): 511–529 - get paper here
  • Barbo, Fausto E; Felipe G Grazziotin, Ivan Sazima, Marcio Martins, and Ricardo J Sawaya 2012. A New and Threatened Insular Species of Lancehead from Southeastern Brazil. Herpetologica 68 (3): 418-429. - get paper here
  • Cicchi, P.J.P., M.A. Sena, D.M. Peccinini-Seale, and M.R. Duarte. 2007. Snakes from coastal islands of State of São Paulo,Southeastern Brazil. Biota Neotropica 17:227–240
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
 
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