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Brachymeles tiboliorum SILER, JONES, DIESMOS, DIESMOS & BROWN, 2012

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Higher TaxaScincidae, Scincinae, Scincoidea, Sauria, Squamata (lizards)
Common NamesE: Western Mindanao Slender Skink. 
SynonymBrachymeles tiboliorum SILER, JONES, DIESMOS, DIESMOS & BROWN 2012 
DistributionPhilippines (W Mindanao)

Type locality: under a rotting log in secondary-growth forest, in Barangay Tablu, Municipal- ity of Tampakan, South Cotabato Province, Mindanao Island, Philippines  
Reproductionviviparous (phylogenetic imputation, fide Zimin et al. 2022) 
TypesHolotype: PNM 9777 (ACD Field no. 5747), adult female, collected by ACD and J. Fernandez, (1000 hr to 1230 hr) on 23 October 2009.
Paratopotype.—One subadult male (PNM 9776) collected on 21 October 2009 by ACD and J. Fernandez. Paratype.—One juvenile of undetermined sex (KU 326109) collected on 24 May 2001, in Initao National Park, Barangay Initao, Munic- ipality of Tubigan, Misamis Oriental Province, Mindanao Island, Philippines (08u5092.40N, 123u529300E; WGS-84), by ACD. 
DiagnosisDiagnosis: Brachymeles tiboliorum can be distinguished from congeners by the following combination of characters: (1) body size medium (SVL 61.6, 75.5 mm); (2) limbs pentadactyl; (3) limb length moderate; (4) relative tail length moderate; (5) Finger-III lamellae four or five; (6) Toe-IV lamellae six; (7) supralabials six; (8) infralabials six; (9) supraciliaries six; (10) supraoculars five; (11) midbody scale rows 26; (12) axilla–groin scale rows 46–47; (13) paravertebral scale rows 68– 70; (14) supranasals separate; (15) frontopar- ietals in contact; (16) parietals in contact; (17) postnasal/supranasal fusion absent; (18) en- larged chin shields in three pairs; (19) nuchal scales undifferentiated; (20) fourth and fifth supralabial below eye; (21) auricular opening present; and (22) presacral vertebrae 33 (Tables 3, 4 in Siler et al. 2012).

Comparisons.—Characters distinguishing B. tiboliorum from all medium-sized, penta- dactyl species of Brachymeles are summarized in Tables 3 and 4. Brachymeles tiboliorum most closely resembles B. gracilis, B. vulcani, and B. suluensis. However, B. tiboliorum differs from these three taxa by having six Toe-IV lamellae (vs. seven or eight [B. gracilis], eight [B. suluensis], eight or nine [B. vulcani]), a tendency toward a greater number of paravertebral scale rows (up to 72 vs. # 70), and 33 presacral vertebrae (vs. 31 [B. suluensis], 32 [B. vulcani], 34 [B. gracilis]). Brachymeles tiboliorum further differs from B. vulcani and B. suluensis by having four or five Finger-III lamellae (vs. five); from B. gracilis and B. vulcani by having enlarged chin shields in three pairs (vs. two); from B. gracilis and B. suluensis by the presence of contact between frontoparietal scales (vs. presence or absence [B. gracilis], absence [B. suluensis]); from B. gracilis by having six infralabials (vs. six or seven) and the absence of a fused postnasal/supranasal scale (vs. presence or absence); and from B. suluensis by having a greater number of midbody scale rows (26 vs. 24) and by the presence of contact between parietals scales (vs. presence or absence).
Brachymeles tiboliorum can be distin- guished from all limbless species of Brachy- meles (B. apus, B. lukbani, B. minimus, B. miriamae, B. vermis) by having limbs; and from all nonpentadactyl species of Brachy- meles (B. bicolandia, B. bonitae, B. brevidac- tylus, B. cebuensis, B. cobos, B. elerae, B. libayani, B. muntingkamay, B. paeforum, B. pathfinderi, B. samarensis, B. tridactylus, B. wrighti) by having pentadactyl (vs. non- pentadactyl) limbs (Siler et al. 2012). 
CommentHabitat: primary- and secondary- growth forest.

Sympatry: throughout its currently recognized range with B. schadenbergi. The population found in South Cotabato Province, Mindanao Island (Fig. 2), also has been documented to occur in sympatry with B. gracilis. As previously mentioned, this is the first documented case of two species of Brachymeles in the same body form and body size class occurring in sympatry. In addition to B. gracilis and B. schadenbergi, four other species of Brachy- meles occur on Mindanao Island (B. hilong, B. orientalis, and B. pathfinderi). Other sympatric sincid species observed on Mindanao Island include Eutropis indeprensa, E. multicarinata, E. multifasciata, E. englei, Lamprolepis smaragdina, L. pulchella, L. quadrivittata, Otosaurus cumingi, Parvoscin- cus steerei, Pinoyscincus abdictus abdictus, P. coxi, P. jagori, P. llanosi, P. cf. mindanensis, Sphenomorphus acutus, S. fasciatus, S. varie- gatus, Tropidophorus misaminus, T. partelloi (Siler et al. 2012). 
EtymologyWe are pleased to name this distinctive new species with a patronym, honoring the indigenous T’boli peoples from South Mindanao Island. The T’boli possess ancestral tribal domains from Buluan Lake in the Cotabato Basin to Agusan del Norte Province in northeastern Mindanao Island, encompassing much of the known distribution of this new species. 
  • Pitogo, K. M. E., Saavedra, A. J. L., & Afuang, L. E. 2021. Amphibians and Reptiles of Mount Busa, Sarangani Province: a Glimpse of the Herpetological Community of Southern Mindanao, Philippines. Philippine Journal of Science, 150(5), 1279-1306 - get paper here
  • Sanguila MB, Cobb KA, Siler CD, Diesmos AC, Alcala AC, Brown RM 2016. The amphibians and reptiles of Mindanao Island, southern Philippines, II: the herpetofauna of northeast Mindanao and adjacent islands. ZooKeys 624: 1–132, doi: 10.3897/zookeys.624.9814 - get paper here
  • Siler, Cameron D.; Robin M. Jones, Arvin C. Diesmos, Mae L. Diesmos, and Rafe M. Brown 2012. Phylogeny-Based Species Delimitation In Philippine Slender Skinks (Reptilia: Squamata: Scincidae) III: Taxonomic Revision of the Brachymeles Gracilis Complex, With Descriptions of Three New Species. Herpetological Monographs 26 (1): 135-172. - get paper here
  • Zimin, A., Zimin, S. V., Shine, R., Avila, L., Bauer, A., Böhm, M., Brown, R., Barki, G., de Oliveira Caetano, G. H., Castro Herrera, F., Chapple, D. G., Chirio, L., Colli, G. R., Doan, T. M., Glaw, F., Grismer, L. L., Itescu, Y., Kraus, F., LeBreton 2022. A global analysis of viviparity in squamates highlights its prevalence in cold climates. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 00, 1–16 - get paper here
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