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Bungarus bungaroides (CANTOR, 1839)

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Higher TaxaElapidae, Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes) 
Subspecies 
Common NamesE: Northeastern Hill Krait
Chinese: 环蛇 
SynonymElaps bungaroides CANTOR 1839
Xenurelaps bungaroides — GÜNTHER 1864: 345
Bungarus bungaroides — WALL 1908
Bungarus bungaroides — SMITH 1943: 410
Bungarus bungaroides — HARDING & WELCH 1980
Bungarus bungaroides — GOLAY 1985
Bungarus bungaroides — WELCH 1994: 37
Bungarus bungaroides — WALLACH et al. 2014: 127 
DistributionMyanmar (= Burma), India (Assam [Cachar], Sikkim, Meghalaya), Nepal, Bhutan, Vietnam (HR 33: 323), elevation 2040 m (Boulenger 1896:371), China (Xizang)

Type locality: “Cherra Pungi [=Cherrapunji], Khasi Hills, Assam, India” [now Meghalaya]  
Reproductionoviparous 
TypesHolotype: BMNH 1946.1.17.91 
DiagnosisDIAGNOSIS. Dorsal scales in 15 longitudinal rows at midbody; subcaudal scutes ordinarily divided anteriorly, but occasionally some scutes may be single, but always divided near the tip; ventrals 220–237; subcaudals 44–51; dorsum black with a series of very narrow white to pale yel-lowish lines or crossbars; on the belly, the light crossbars widen to form distinct transverse bars. Total length 1400 mm; tail length 160 mm (largest male). 
CommentIllustration in KHAN (2002), Figure 105; the specimen is NOT B. caeruleus as indicated (fide TILLACK & KUCHARZEWSKI 2004).

Venomous! 
Etymology 
References
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1896. Catalogue of the snakes in the British Museum, Vol. 3. London (Taylor & Francis), xiv + 727 pp. - get paper here
  • Boulenger, George A. 1890. The Fauna of British India, Including Ceylon and Burma. Reptilia and Batrachia. Taylor & Francis, London, xviii, 541 pp. - get paper here
  • Cantor, T. E. 1839. Spicilegium serpentium indicorum [part 1]. Proc. Zool. Soc. London 1839: 31-34 - get paper here
  • Das, Abhijit 2018. Notes on Snakes of the Genus Bungarus 2 (Serpentes: Elapidae) from Northeast India. in: C. Sivaperuman, K. Venkataraman (eds.), Indian Hotspots, Springer, pp: - get paper here
  • Das, I. 2012. A Naturalist's Guide to the Snakes of South-East Asia: Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand, Myanmar, Borneo, Sumatra, Java and Bali. Oxford J, ohn Beaufoy Publishing - get paper here
  • Dowling, H.G., & Jenner, J.V. 1988. Snakes of Burma: checklist of reported species and bibliography. Smithsonian Herp. Inf. Serv. (76): 19 pp. - get paper here
  • Golay,P. 1985. Checklist and keys to the terrestrial proteroglyphs of the world (Serpentes: Elapidae - Hydrophiidae). Elapsoidea, Geneva. - get paper here
  • Kästle , W., Rai, K. & Schleich, H.H. 2013. FIELD GUIDE to Amphibians and Reptiles of Nepal. ARCO-Nepal e.V., 625 pp. - get paper here
  • Khan, M.S. 2002. Die Schlangen Pakistans [English edition as “A Guide to the snakes of Pakistan”]. Edition Chimaira (Frankfurt am Main), 265 pp. [review in HR 34: 400, Russ J Herp 12: 79] - get paper here
  • Kuch, U.; Kizirian, D.; Nguyen, Q.T.; Lawson, R.; Donnelly, M.A. & Mebs, D. 2005. A new species of krait (Squamata: Elapidae) from the Red River System of Nothern Vietnam. Copeia 2005 (4): 818-833 - get paper here
  • Lenz, Norbert 2012. Von Schmetterlingen und Donnerdrachen - Natur und Kultur in Bhutan. Karlsruher Naturhefte 4, Naturkundemuseum Karlsruhe, 124 pp.
  • Leviton, Alan E.; Guinevere O.U. Wogan; Michelle S. Koo; George R. Zug; Rhonda S. Lucas and Jens V. Vindum 2003. The Dangerously Venomous Snakes of Myanmar Illustrated Checklist with Keys. Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. 54 (24): 407–462 - get paper here
  • RAO Ding-qi, ZHAO Er-mi 2004. Bungarus bungaroides, A Record New to China (Xizang AR) with a Note on Trimeresurus tibetanus. Sichuan Journal of Zoology 23 (3)
  • Shah, K. B. 1998. Checklist of the herpetofauna of Nepal with english and vernacular names. NAHSON Bull., Nat. Hist. Soc. Nepal, Kathmandu 8 (1-4): 26-30
  • Shah, K.B. 1999. New records and distribution of some herpetofauna of Nepal. J. Nat. Hist. Mus., Kathmandu 18: 99-111
  • Sharma, R. C. 2004. Handbook Indian Snakes. AKHIL BOOKS, New Delhi, 292 pp.
  • Sharma, S.K., Pandey, D.P., Shah, K.B., Tillack, E, Chappuis, E, Thapa, C. L., AiroI, E. & Kuch, U. 2013. Venomous snakes of Nepal: a photographic guide. B.P. Kolrala Institute of Health Sciences, Dharan, 85 pp. - get paper here
  • Slowinski J B. 1994. A phylogenetic analysis of Bungarus (Elapidae) based on morphological characters. Journal of Herpetology 28 (4): 440-446 - get paper here
  • Smith, M.A. 1943. The Fauna of British India, Ceylon and Burma, Including the Whole of the Indo-Chinese Sub-Region. Reptilia and Amphibia. 3 (Serpentes). Taylor and Francis, London. 583 pp.
  • Tillack, F. & Kucharzewski, C. 2004. Buchbesprechung: Khan: Die Schlangen Pakistans. Reptilia (Münster) 9 (45): 92-96 - get paper here
  • Wall,F. 1908. A popular treatise of the common Indian snakes. Part VIII. J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 18: 711-735 - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
  • Wang, Kai; Jinlong Ren, Hongman Chen, Zhitong Lyu, Xianguang Guo Ke Jiang, Jinmin Chen, Jiatang Li, Peng Guo, Yingyong Wang, Jing Che 2020. The updated checklists of amphibians and reptiles of China. Biodiversity Science 28 (2): 189-218 - get paper here
  • Wangyal, Jigme Tshelthrim 2019. The status of herpetofauna of Bhutan. District Forest Office, District Administration, Trashigang, Bhutan, 20-39 - get paper here
  • Zhao, E.M. 2006. The snakes of China [in Chinese]. Hefei, China, Anhui Sience & Technology Publ. House, Vol. I, 372 pp., Vol. II (color plates), 280 pp.
 
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