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Caaeteboia amarali (WETTSTEIN, 1930)

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Higher TaxaColubridae (Dipsadinae), Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes) 
Common NamesAmaral's Ground Snake 
SynonymLiophis amarali WETTSTEIN 1930: 93
Liophis amarali — PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970: 176
Liophis amarali incertae sedis — DIXON 1980: 4
Caaeteboia amarali — ZAHER et al. 2009
Caaeteboia amarali — WALLACH et al. 2014: 131 
DistributionBrazil (Bahia, Minas Gerais, Parana, Santa Catarina, Espírito Santo, Rio de Janeiro)

Type locality: Bello Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil  
TypesHolotype: NMW 23107 
DiagnosisDiagnosis (Caaeteboia): Small (much less than 1 m), slender snakes with slender transverse (maxillary) processes of pre‐ maxillae bearing a small additional process oriented posteriorly from each transverse process (these are in addition to the vomerine processes); hemipenis typi‐ cally xenodontine, i.e., bilobed, semicapitate and sem‐ icalyculate; sulcus spermaticus divides on the proxi‐ mal region; branches of the sulcus on the lobes with centrolineal orientation; lobes small, the medial lobe shorter than the lateral one; capitula ornamented with small, ill‐defined papillate calyces, restricted to the sulcate and lateral surfaces of the lobes; hemipenial body ornamented with well‐defined lateral enlarged spines and smaller spines covering the asulcate and sulcate sides of the organ out of the intrasulcar region; body spines decreasing in length toward the base. 
Comment“incertae sedis” (of unclear status) according to DIXON 1989.

Type species: Liophis amarali Wettstein, 1930 is the type species of the genus Caaeteboia ZAHER et al. 2009. 
EtymologyNamed after Dr. Afranio do Amaral (1894-1982), physician, zoologist, herpetologist and Director of the Instituto Butantan (1919-1921 and 1928-1938). 
  • Beolens, Bo; Michael Watkins, and Michael Grayson 2011. The Eponym Dictionary of Reptiles. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, USA - get paper here
  • Dixon, J. R. 1980. The neotropical colubrid snake genus Liophis. The generic concept. Milwaukee Public Museum Contributions in Biology and Geology 31: 1-40
  • Hamdan, B. & R. M. Lira-da-Silva 2012. The snakes of Bahia State, northeastern Brazil: species richness, composition and biogeographical notes. Salamandra 48 (1): 31-50 - get paper here
  • Passos, P., L. Ramos & D. N. Pereira 2012. Distribution, natural history, and morphology of the rare snake, Caaeteboia amarali (Serpentes: Dipsadidae). Salamandra 48 (1): 51-58 - get paper here
  • Valencia, J. H., K. Garzón-Tello & M. E. Barragán-Paladines 2016. Serpientes venenosas del Ecuador: sistemática, taxonomía, historia natural, conservación, envenenamiento y aspectos antropológicos. Quito, Ecuador, Fundación Herpetológica Gustavo Orcés, Universidad de Texas, Fondo Ambiental Nacional, 652 pp. [review in HR 49 (1): 152, 2018]
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
  • Wettstein, O. 1930. Eine neue colubridae Schlange aus Brasilien. Zool. Anz. 88: 93-94
  • Zaher, Hussam; Grazziotin, Felipe Gobbi; Cadle, John E.; Murphy, Robert W.; Moura-Leite, Julio Cesar de; Bonatto, Sandro L 2009. Molecular phylogeny of advanced snakes (Serpentes, Caenophidia) with an emphasis on South American Xenodontines: a revised classification and descriptions of new taxa. Pap. Avulsos Zool. (São Paulo) 49 (11): 115-153 - get paper here
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