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Caaeteboia amarali (WETTSTEIN, 1930)

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Higher TaxaColubridae (Dipsadinae), Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Common NamesE: Amaral's Ground Snake
Portuguese: Cobrinha-Marrom-do-Litoral, Cobrinha-Marrom-da-Restinga 
SynonymLiophis amarali WETTSTEIN 1930: 93
Liophis amarali — PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970: 176
Liophis amarali incertae sedis — DIXON 1980: 4
Liophis amarali — MARQUES et al. 2009
Caaeteboia amarali — ZAHER et al. 2009
Caaeteboia amarali — WALLACH et al. 2014: 131
Caaeteboia amarali — NOGUEIRA et al. 2019 
DistributionBrazil (Bahia, Minas Gerais, Parana, Santa Catarina, Espírito Santo, Rio de Janeiro)

Type locality: Bello Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil  
TypesHolotype: NMW 23107 
DiagnosisDiagnosis (Caaeteboia): Small (much less than 1 m), slender snakes with slender transverse (maxillary) processes of pre‐maxillae bearing a small additional process oriented posteriorly from each transverse process (these are in addition to the vomerine processes); hemipenis typically xenodontine, i.e., bilobed, semicapitate and semicalyculate; sulcus spermaticus divides on the proximal region; branches of the sulcus on the lobes with centrolineal orientation; lobes small, the medial lobe shorter than the lateral one; capitula ornamented with small, ill‐defined papillate calyces, restricted to the sulcate and lateral surfaces of the lobes; hemipenial body ornamented with well‐defined lateral enlarged spines and smaller spines covering the asulcate and sulcate sides of the organ out of the intrasulcar region; body spines decreasing in length toward the base.

Diagnosis: C. amarali is easily distinguished from other Atlantic forest Xenodontine snakes by its light gray head and pale body coloration marked by a “V” shaped dark mark extending backwards from the parietals and forming a vertebral stripe that fades on the anterior portion of the dorsum, and a dark- brown stripe on each side of the head that extends from the nostril to the postocular region, bordering dorsally the light cream supralabials and extending as blotches to the anterior third of the body (Passos et al., 2012, Montingelli et al. 2020) 
Comment“incertae sedis” (of unclear status) according to DIXON 1989.

Type species: Liophis amarali Wettstein, 1930 is the type species of the genus Caaeteboia ZAHER et al. 2009.

Habitat: partly arboreal (Harrington et al. 2018).

Diet: frogs and lizards

Distribution: see map in Montingelli et al. 2020: 220 (Fig.1). See map in Nogueira et al. 2019. 
EtymologyNamed after Dr. Afranio do Amaral (1894-1982), physician, zoologist, herpetologist and Director of the Instituto Butantan (1919-1921 and 1928-1938). Amaral was even on the cover of Time magazine in the January 28, 1929 issue. 
  • Beolens, Bo; Michael Watkins, and Michael Grayson 2011. The Eponym Dictionary of Reptiles. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, USA - get paper here
  • Dixon, J. R. 1980. The neotropical colubrid snake genus Liophis. The generic concept. Milwaukee Public Museum Contributions in Biology and Geology 31: 1-40 - get paper here
  • Gemel, R.; G. Gassner & S. Schweiger 2019. Katalog der Typen der Herpetologischen Sammlung des Naturhistorischen Museums Wien – 2018. Ann. Naturhist. Mus. Wien, B 121: 33–248
  • Gonzalez R. C. et al. 2020. Lista dos Nomes Populares dos Répteis no Brasil – Primeira Versão. Herpetologia Brasileira 9 (2): 121 – 214 - get paper here
  • Hamdan, B. & R. M. Lira-da-Silva 2012. The snakes of Bahia State, northeastern Brazil: species richness, composition and biogeographical notes. Salamandra 48 (1): 31-50 - get paper here
  • Harrington, Sean M; Jordyn M de Haan, Lindsey Shapiro, Sara Ruane 2018. Habits and characteristics of arboreal snakes worldwide: arboreality constrains body size but does not affect lineage diversification. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 125 (1): 61–71 - get paper here
  • MARQUES, O. A. V. et al. 2009. Repteis. In: Bressan et al., FAUNA AMEAÇADA DE EXTINÇÃO NO ESTADO DE SÃO PAULO: VERTEBRADOS. São Paulo: Fundação Parque Zoológico de São Paulo: Secretaria do Meio Ambiente, pp. 285-327 - get paper here
  • Nogueira, Cristiano C.; Antonio J.S. Argôlo, Vanesa Arzamendia, Josué A. Azevedo, Fausto E. Barbo, Renato S. Bérnils, Bruna E. Bolochio, Marcio Borges-Martins, Marcela Brasil-Godinho, Henrique Braz, Marcus A. Buononato, Diego F. Cisneros-Heredia, 2019. Atlas of Brazilian snakes: verified point-locality maps to mitigate the Wallacean shortfall in a megadiverse snake fauna. South American J. Herp. 14 (Special Issue 1):1-274 - get paper here
  • Oliveira, Jane C.F.; Rodrigo Castellari Gonzalez; Paulo Passos; Davor Vrcibradic & Carlos Frederico Duarte Rocha 2020. Non-Avian Reptiles of the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: status of knowledge and commented list. Pap. Avulsos Zool. 60: e20206024 - get paper here
  • Passos, P., L. Ramos & D. N. Pereira 2012. Distribution, natural history, and morphology of the rare snake, Caaeteboia amarali (Serpentes: Dipsadidae). Salamandra 48 (1): 51-58 - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
  • Wettstein, O. 1930. Eine neue colubridae Schlange aus Brasilien. Zool. Anz. 88: 93-94
  • Zaher, Hussam; Fausto Erritto BarboI; Paola Sanchez Martínez; Cristiano Nogueira; Miguel Trefaut Rodrigues; Ricardo Jannini Sawaya 2011. Répteis do Estado de São Paulo: conhecimento atual e perspectivas. Biota Neotropica, 11 (1): 1–15. - get paper here
  • Zaher, Hussam; Grazziotin, Felipe Gobbi; Cadle, John E.; Murphy, Robert W.; Moura-Leite, Julio Cesar de; Bonatto, Sandro L 2009. Molecular phylogeny of advanced snakes (Serpentes, Caenophidia) with an emphasis on South American Xenodontines: a revised classification and descriptions of new taxa. Pap. Avulsos Zool. (São Paulo) 49 (11): 115-153 - get paper here
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