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Caiman yacare (DAUDIN, 1802)

IUCN Red List - Caiman yacare - , LR

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Higher TaxaAlligatoridae, Crocodylia, crocodiles (alligators) 
SubspeciesCaiman yacare medemi DONOSO 1974
Caiman yacare yacare (DAUDIN 1802) 
Common NamesE: Yacare caiman
G: Südlicher Brillenkaiman 
SynonymCrocodilus yacare DAUDIN 1802: 407
Jacaretinga punctulatus SPIX 1825
Alligator punctulatus — DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1836: 91
Champsa vallifrons NATTERER 1840
Jacare longiscutata GRAY 1862
Jacare ocellata GRAY 1862
Jacare multiscutata GRAY 1867
Alligator punctulatus — GÜNTHER 1885: 21
Caiman sclerops BOULENGER 1889 (partim)
Caiman yacare — SCHMIDT 1928
Jacaretinga crocodilus yacare - WERNER 1933
Caiman crocodilus yacare - MÜLLER & HELLMICH 1936
Caiman crocodilus matogrossoiensis FUCHS 1971 (nomen nudum fide WERMUTH & MERTENS 1977)
Caiman crocodilus paraguayiensis FUCHS 1971 (nomen nudum fide WERMUTH & MERTENS 1977)
Caiman crocodilus matogrossiensis - FUCHS 1974 (fide MEDEM 1983)
Caiman crocodilus paraguaiensis - FUCHS 1974 (fide MEDEM 1983)
Caiman crocodilus matogrossiensis — WERMUTH & MERTENS 1977: 137
Caiman crocodilus yacare — WERMUTH & MERTENS 1977: 138
Caiman yacare - CEI 1993
Caiman yacare — NICKEL & AULIYA 2004
Caiman crocodilus yacare — MARTIN 2008

Caiman yacare medemi DONOSO 1974
Caiman yacare medemi — NICKEL & AULIYA 2004 
DistributionN Argentina (Formosa), S Brazil, S Bolivia, Paraguay

medemi: Bolivia, Beni

Type locality: Paraguay. Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
Reproductionoviparous. 
TypesHolotype: not located (fide King & Burke 1989) 
CommentSubspecies: Considered as subspecies of Caiman crocodilus by older authors.

Synonymy following that of CEI 1993 and KING & BURKE 1989.

Distribution: Fuchs (1971) improperly displaced the type locality of C. yacare to Bolivia in his description of paraguayiensis. 
References
  • Blanco, M.V. Fernandez; Bona, P.; Olivares, A.I.; Desojo, J.B. 2015. Ontogenetic variation in the skulls of Caiman: the case of Caiman latirostris and Caiman yacare (Alligatoridae, Caimaninae). The Herpetological Journal 25 (2): 65-73 - get paper here
  • Brazaitis, Peter; Rebólo, George H.;Yamashita, Carlos 1998. The distribution of Caiman crocodilus crocodilus and Caiman yacare populations in Brazil. Amphibia-Reptilia 19 (2): 193-201 - get paper here
  • Busack, Stephen D. and Sima Pandya 2001. Geographic variation in Caiman crocodilus and Caiman yacare (Crocodylia: Alligatoridae): systematic and legal implications. Herpetologica 57 (3):294-312 - get paper here
  • Cano, Paula Daniela; Héctor Alejandro Ball, Matías Federico Carpinetto, Germán Darío Peña 2015. Reptile checklist of Río Pilcomayo National Park, Formosa, Argentina. Check List 11 (3): 1658 - get paper here
  • Cei, J. M. 1993. Reptiles del noroeste, nordeste y este de la Argentina. Museo Regionale Sci. Naturale Torino, Monografie 14: 1-949
  • Daudin 1802. Histoire Naturelle, Générale et Particulière des Reptiles; ouvrage faisant suit à l'Histoire naturell générale et particulière, composée par Leclerc de Buffon; et rédigee par C.S. Sonnini, membre de plusieurs sociétés savantes. Vol. 2. F. Dufart, Paris [1802], 432 pp.
  • Donoso-Barros, R. 1974. Contribucion al conocimiento de los cocodrilos de Bolivia Caiman yacare medemi nuevo Aligatorido. Boletín de la Sociedad de Biologia de Concepción 47: 131-143
  • Duméril, A.M. C. and G. Bibron. 1836. Erpetologie Générale ou Histoire Naturelle Complete des Reptiles. Vol.3. Libr. Encyclopédique Roret, Paris, 528 pp. - get paper here
  • Freiberg & CARVALHO 1965. El yacare Sudamericano Caiman latirostris (Daudin). Physis. Buenos Aires. 25 (70): 351-360
  • Fuchs, K. 1971. Die Südamerikanischen Reptilhäute. Das Leder, Darmstadt. 22 (9): 197-213
  • Fuchs, K. 1974. Die Krokodilhaut; Ein wichtiger Merkmalträger bei der Identifizierung von Krokodil-Arten. Eduard Roether Verlang, Darmstadt. 183 pp.
  • Gray, J. E. 1862. A synopsis of the species of Alligators. Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (3)10 : 327-331 - get paper here
  • Günther, A. C. L. G. 1885. Reptilia and Batrachia. Biologia Centrali-Américana. Taylor, & Francis, London, 326 pp. [published in parts from 1885-1902; reprint by the SSAR 1987] - get paper here
  • Hallmen, M. 2009. Ein Stück vom Paradies. Die Pouso Alegre im brasilianischen Pantanal aus Sicht eines Reptilienfreundes. Teil 2. Reptilia (Münster) 14 (77): 38-46 - get paper here
  • Kofron, Christopher P.; Patricia A. Farris 2015. Infrasound production by a yacare caiman Caiman yacare in the Pantanal, Brazil Herpetology Notes 8: 385-387 - get paper here
  • Martin, Samuel 2008. Global diversity of crocodiles (Crocodilia, Reptilia) in freshwater. Hydrobiologia 595:587–591
  • Medem, F. 1960. Notes on the Paraguay caiman, Caiman yacare (Daudin). Mitt. Zool. Mus. Berlin 36 (1): 129-142
  • Medem, F. 1981. Los Crocodylia de Sur America. Vol. 1. Los Crocodylia de Colombia. Ministerio de Educacion Nacional, Bogotá. 354 pp.
  • Medem, F. 1983. Los Crocodylia de Sur America. Vol. 2. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Museo de Historia Natural, Universidad Nacional. Bogotá. 270 pp.
  • Miles, Lee G.; Stacey L. Lance; Sally R. Isberg; <br />Chris Moran; Travis C. Glenn 2009. Cross-species amplification of microsatellites in crocodilians: assessment and applications for the future. Conserv Genet. 10:935–954
  • Natterer, Johann 1840. Beitrag zur näheren Kenntniss der südamerikanischen Alligatoren, nach gemeinschaftlichen Untersuchungen mit L.J. Fitzinger. Ann. naturhist. Hof. Mus. Wien 2: 311-324
  • Nickel, H. & Auliya, M. 2004. Krokodile - faszinierende Überlebenskünstler. Draco 5 (20): 4-19 - get paper here
  • Pinheiro, M.S.; Andreotti E Silva, R. & Santos, S.A. 2001. OBSERVATIONS ON THE THERMAL SELECTION OF THE PANTANAL CAIMAN (Caiman crocodilus yacare) HATCHLINGS (Crocodylia: Alligatoridae). Rev. Brasil. Biol., 61(2): 323-327
  • Piras, Paolo; Luciano Teresi; Angela D. Buscalioni and Jorge Cubo 2009. The shadow of forgotten ancestors differently constrains the fate of Alligatoroidea and Crocodyloidea. Global Ecology and Biogeography (Global Ecol. Biogeogr.) 18: 30–40
  • Scott, N.J.;Aquino, A.L.;Fitzgerald, L.A. 1990. Distribution, habitats, and conservation of the caimans (Alligatoridae) of Paraguay. Vida Silv. Neotrop. 2 (2): 43-51
  • Troiano, J.C. 2005. Veterinary crocodilian pathology. Reptilia (GB) (42): 76-80 - get paper here
  • Trutnau, L. & Sommerlad, R. 2006. Krokodile - Biologie und Haltung. Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt, 646 pp. [review in Reptilia Münster 11 (6): 95-96]
  • Trutnau, L. & Sommerlad, R. 2006. Crocodilians. Their natural history and captive husbandry. Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt, 646 pp. [review in Reptilia GB 48: 8-10]
  • Wermuth,H. & Fuchs,K. 1978. Bestimmen von Krokodilen und ihrer Häute. Gustav Fischer Verlag, Stuttgart - New York, 100 pages, [ISBN 3-437-30268-X]
  • Werning, H. 2005. Caiman yacare (DAUDIN 1802) - Südlicher Brillenkaiman. Reptilia (Münster) 10 (51): 51-54 - get paper here
  • Willis, Ray E. 2009. Transthyretin gene (TTR) intron 1 elucidates crocodylian phylogenetic relationships. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 53 (3): 1049-1054 - get paper here
  • Winchell, S. 2010. Die Reptilien Argentiniens. Reptilia (Münster) 15 (83): 20-27 - get paper here
 
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