Calamaria grabowskyi FISCHER, 1885
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|Higher Taxa||Colubridae, Calamariinae, Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)|
|Synonym||Calamaria grabowskyi FISCHER 1885|
Calamaria baluensis BOULENGER 1893
Calamaria moultoni DUNN 1923: 3
Calamaria grabowskyi — INGER & MARX 1965: 129
Calamaria baluensis — MANTHEY 1983
Calamaria grabowskyi — MANTHEY 1983
Calamaria grabowskyi — MANTHEY & GROSSMANN 1997: 328
Calamaria grabowskyi — INGER & VORIS 2001
Calamaria grabowskyi — GOWER et al. 2012: 137
Calamaria grabowskyi — WALLACH et al. 2014: 137
Type locality: Telang and Tameanglaijang; Dusson Timor District, SE Borneo.
|Types||Syntypes: BMNH 19188.8.131.52-26 (184.108.40.206-14)|
Holotype: BMNH 19220.127.116.11 (18.104.22.168) [baluensis]
Holotype: BMNH 1922.214.171.124 (19126.96.36.199) [moultoni]
|Diagnosis||Diagnosis. Maxillary teeth modified; third and fourth supralabials entering orbit; preocular present; mental touching anterior chin shields; paraparietal surrounded by 5 scales and shields; reduction to 4 dorsal scale rows separated from terminal scute by 12 or more subcaudals; subcaudals 20 or more; ventrals of males 150 or more, of females usually 170 or more (Inger & Marx 1965: 130).|
Description. Rostral wider than high, or as high as wide, portion visible from above 1/2, to 3/4 length of prefrontal suture; prefrontal about 3/4 length of frontal, touching first 2 supralabials; frontal hexagonal, 1.5 to 2 times width of supraocular, equal to length of parietal; parietal 1.5 times length of prefrontal; paraparietal surrounded by 5 scales and shields (about 20% of specimens with 4 or
6) nasal smaller than postocular; preocular present; neither ocular as high as eye; eye greater than eye-mouth distance; 5 supralabials, third and fourth entering orbit, fifth the largest, first 4 subequal, or third somewhat larger; mental triangular, touching anterior chin shields; 5 infralabials, first 3 touching anterior chin shields; both pairs of chin shields meeting in midline; 3 gulars in midline between
posterior chin shields and first ventral. Bodythicknessindex0.011-0.062(10 specimens); tail long, tapering gradually to a blunt tip (Fig.10D); dorsal scales reduce to 4 rows on tail opposite twelfth to twenty-first subcaudal anterior to terminal scute; reduce to 2 rows near tip (Inger & Marx 1965: 130).
Hemipenis bifurcating opposite fifth subcaudal; sulcus spermaticus bifurcate, calyces smooth (1 specimen). Cloaca of female bilobed (1) (Inger & Marx 1965: 131).
Eight to 10 modified maxillary teeth (5 specimens) (Inger & Marx 1965: 131).
Scale counts: Ventrals: males, 150-186 (mean 170.7; N=15); females, 164-190 (mean179.2; N=18). Subcaudals: males, 23-29 (mean 26.3; N=15); females, 20-28 (mean 22.6; N=18) (Inger & Marx 1965: 131).
Total length; males, 182-365 mm.; females, 212-468 mm. Ratio of tail to total length: males, 0.085-0.104 (mean 0.095. N=15); females, 0.069-0.084 (mean 0.076; N=13) (Inger & Marx 1965: 131).
Coloration: dark brown above; each dorsal scale with a dark network; scattered dark brown or black spots forming dashes or short lines above; usually first three scale rows yellow just behind head, the yellow area bordered above by an irregular black stripe; scales of first row with white centers and dark edges forming a dark-edged white stripe running length of body; head brown above with dark brown or black spots; a dark brown or black stripe on side of head occupying upper third of supralabials and usually lower edge of prefrontal; lower two-thirds of supralabials yellow, with or without dark sutures; underside of head yellow, usually with small dark spots anteriorly; ventrals uniformly yellow or, more often, with varying amounts of black pigment; black pigment, when present, appears short distance behind head, taking form of median and lateral bands of transversely elongated dark spots; as amount of dark pigment increases, the rows of dark spots fuse to form a band across anterior edge of each ventral; at maximum black pigment includes all but a narrow posterior strip on each ventral; tail yellow below, with a black median band; subcaudals of some specimens with dark anterior edges (Inger & Marx 1965: 131).
|Comment||Synonymy: Smith (1931) compared the types of moultoni, baluensis, and grabowskyi and concluded that they belonged to a single species, which was supported by Inger & Marx 1965.|
|Etymology||Named after Friederich J. Grabowsky (1857-1929), German zoologist and botanist. He became Director, Zoological Gardens, Breslau, and Inspector, Brunswick Zoological Institute.|
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