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Callisaurus draconoides BLAINVILLE, 1835

IUCN Red List - Callisaurus draconoides - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaPhrynosomatidae, Phrynosomatinae, Callisaurini; Iguania, Sauria, Squamata (lizards)
SubspeciesCallisaurus draconoides bogerti MARTIN DEL CAMPO 1943
Callisaurus draconoides brevipes BOGERT & DORSON 1942
Callisaurus draconoides carmenensis DICKERSON 1919
Callisaurus draconoides crinitus COPE 1896
Callisaurus draconoides draconoides BLAINVILLE 1835
Callisaurus draconoides inusitatus DICKERSON 1919
Callisaurus draconoides myurus RICHARDSON 1915
Callisaurus draconoides rhodostictus COPE 1896
Callisaurus draconoides ventralis (HALLOWELL 1852) 
Common NamesE: Zebra-tailed Lizard
G: Zebraschwanzleguan
myurus: Northern Zebratail Lizard, Nevada Zebratail Lizard
rhodostictus: Western Zebratail Lizard, Mojave Zebratail Lizard
ventralis: Eastern Zebratail Lizard, Arizona Zebratail Lizard
S: Cachora Arenera 
SynonymCallisaurus draconoides BLAINVILLE 1835: 286
Callisaurus draconoides — DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1837: 326
Homolosaurus ventralis HALLOWELL 1852
Callisaurus draconoides — BOULENGER 1885: 206
Callisaurus rhodostictus COPE 1896
Callisaurus splendidus DICKERSON 1919: 467 (fide GRISMER 1999)
Callisaurus draconoides — SMITH & TAYLOR 1950: 86
Callisaurus draconoides — STEBBINS 1985: 117
Callisaurus draconoides — LINER 1994
Callisaurus draconoides — CROTHER et al. 2012
Callisaurus splendidus — LEMOS-ESPINAL 2015

Callisaurus draconoides bogerti MARTIN DEL CAMPO 1943
Callisaurus draconoides bogerti — FUGLER & DIXON 1961
Callisaurus draconoides bogerti — HARDY 1969: 116
Callisaurus draconoides bogerti — WEBB 1984

Callisaurus draconoides brevipes BOGERT & DORSON 1942
Callisaurus draconoides brevipes — ZWEIFEL & NORRIS 1955: 234
Callisaurus draconoides brevipes — HARDY 1969: 117

Callisaurus draconoides carmenensis DICKERSON 1919
Callisaurus carmenensis DICKERSON 1919: 465
Callisaurus plasticus DICKERSON 1919: 466
Callisaurus draconoides carmenensis — ZWEIFEL 1958

Callisaurus draconoides crinitus COPE 1896
Callisaurus crinitus COPE 1896: 1049
Callisaurus draconoides crinitus — TEVIS 1944
Callisaurus draconoides crinitus — SMITH & TAYLOR 1950: 87
Callisaurus draconoides crinitus — BOSTIC 1971
Callisaurus draconoides crinitus — GRISMER 2020

Callisaurus draconoides inusitatus DICKERSON 1919
Callisaurus inusitatus DICKERSON 1919: 465
Callisaurus draconoides inusitatus — TAYLOR 1938: 482
Callisaurus draconoides inusitatus — REYES et al. 2014

Callisaurus draconoides myurus RICHARDSON 1915
Callisaurus ventralis myurus — VAN DENBURGH & SLEVIN 1921
Callisaurus draconoides myurus — COLLINS & TAGGART 2009
Callisaurus draconoides myurus — CROTHER et al. 2012

Callisaurus draconoides rhodostictus COPE 1896
Callisaurus draconoides rhodostictus — SMITH & COCHRAN 1956
Callisaurus draconoides rhodostictus — BOSTIC 1971
Callisaurus draconoides rhodostictus — COLLINS & TAGGART 2009
Callisaurus draconoides rhodostictus — CROTHER et al. 2012

Callisaurus draconoides ventralis (HALLOWELL 1852)
Homalosaurus ventralis HALLOWELL 1852
Callisaurus ventralis — STEJNEGER 1893: 170
Callisaurus ventralis — VAN DENBURGH 1895: 97
Callisaurus draconoides ventralis — COPE 1900
Callisaurus draconoides gabbii COPE 1900: 272
Callisaurus ventralis ventralis — VAN DENBURGH & SLEVIN 1921
Callisaurus draconoides gabbii — KLAUBER 1934: 9
Callisaurus ventralis — ORTENBURGER & ORTENBURGER 1927
Callisaurus draconoides ventralis — BURT 1933
Callisaurus draconoides ventralis — GLOYD 1937
Callisaurus draconoides ventralis — ZWEIFEL & NORRIS 1955
Callisaurus draconoides gabbi — ETHERIDGE 1964
Callisaurus draconoides ventralis — COLLINS & TAGGART 2009
Callisaurus draconoides ventralis — CROTHER et al. 2012 
DistributionUSA (SW California, Nevada, Arizona, New Mexico),
Mexico (Baja California, Sonora, Sinaloa)

bogerti: Mexico (Sinaloa, Mazatlán). Type locality: Isla de los Chivos, en el Puerto de Mazatlán, Sinaloa.

brevipes: Mexico (Sinaloa, Sonora); Type locality: Guirocoba, 18 miles southeast Alamos, Sonora.

carmenensis: Camen Island, Gulf of Mexico, Mexico.

inusitanus: Mexico (Sonora)

Type locality: California. Restricted to Cape San Lucas, Baja California by SMITH & TAYLOR 1950.

splendidus: endemic to Isla Ángel de La Guarda.

rhodostictus: California, Arizona, Baja California

ventralis: Arizona, California, Nevada (fide BURT 1933)  
Reproductionoviparous.<br />Hybridization: Dickerson 1919 speculated that both inusitatus and plasticus “very possibly, in fact probably, intergrade with Callisaurus ventralis ventralis” (= C. d. ventralis). 
TypesHolotype: MNHN-RA 0812 (by monotypy)
Holotype: CNAR (cited as Inst. Biol. Mexico; Victoriano Rodriguez collector. [bogerti]
Holotype: AMNH 63668; J. W. Hilton collector. [brevipes]
Holotype: USNM 14895 [crinitus]
Holotype: AMNH 538, USNM 642538 [carmenensis]
Syntypes: (2) ANSP 8548, 12788; northern Lower California [gabbii]
Syntypes: AMNH 5324, USNM 64256 [inusitatus]
Holotype: USNM 51786 [myurus]
Syntypes: USNM 21504 [rhodostictus]
Holotype: USNM 64254, given as AMNH 5372, paratype: AMNH 5338 [Callisaurus splendidus]
Holotype: USNM 2670; S. W. Woodhouse collector. [ventralis]
Holotype: USNM 64255 [Callisaurus plasticus] 
DiagnosisDiagnosis: Zebra-tailed Lizards (Callisaurus draconoides) have external ear openings and the 2 black bands are farther forward on the sides and belly. Elegant (Holbrookia elegans) and Common Lesser Earless Lizards (Holbrookia maculata) have smaller black bands that are farther forward, and lack black markings on the ventral tail surface (Howland in Jones & Lovich 2009: 146).

Description: Lizard with a slender body, long thin limbs, and a slightly flattened tail. Snout wedge-shaped, the lower jaw countersunk, gular fold present. The dorsal scales are granular, ventrals are larger and smooth, and the eyelids are fringed with small pointed scales (after Brennan in Jones & Lovich 2009: 142).

Coloration: grayish tan, usually with a yellow tint on the lower sides. Two longitudinal rows of gray-brown dorsal blotches extend from the shoulders to the base of the tail, where they merge into the dorsal component of the dark tail rings. In adults, dorsal blotches are often faded or obscured by numerous pale dots. Muted gray crossbars usually mark the dorsal surfaces of the hind limbs, and a distinct dark gray horizontal bar runs along the posterior surface of each thigh. Dark tail rings become jet-black ventrally, where they sharply contrast with the white background. Several thin dark lines extend from the labials to a dusky area on the throat; the center of the throat is often rosy. A soft-edged orange patch is often present on each side of the venter, just behind the forelimb. Two dark vertical bars mark each side of the body anterior to the midline. These bars extend down onto the sides of the venter. Juveniles usually have distinct brownish dorsal blotches (Brennan in Jones & Lovich 2009: 142).

Sexual dimorphism: Males have enlarged post-anal scales, black body bars, and a large blue patch surrounding the body bars on each side of the venter. Females lack blue patches on the venter and their body bars are faint or lacking (Brennan in Jones & Lovich 2009: 143).

DIAGNOSIS (carmenensis). A small Callisaurus rather closely related to C. plasticus, new species, but with finer scutellation throughout, especially noticeable in dorsals, scales forming denticulated margin of gular fold, on chest posterior to gular fold, inferior shoulder patches of enlarged scales, and tibials; femoral pores variable, averaging 14. Blue lateroventral area very small changing to purplish brown posteriorly; black lateroventral bands obscure, short and narrow, parallel, somewhat curved; tail black-spotted below only (Dickerson 1919: 465).

DIAGNOSIS (inusitatus). Size large, adults often exceeding 200 mm. total length. Hind leg equal to or longer than distance from snout to anus, reaching beyond muzzle when stretched forward along body; femoral pores, 18 (average of 29 specimens). Black lateral bands, 2; very oblique forward, long but variable in width, irregular in outline; usually obscurely marked, united inferiorly along ·the margin of the blue area, producing between them a conspicuous U-shaped blue spot below the lateral fold. Blue lateroventral area prominent and extending nearly to groin. Ventral tail white with 6-9 black crossbands; dorsal caudal surface brown with markings brown not black (Dickerson 1919: 465).

Diagnosis: Total length of adult seldom exceeding 170 mm. Hind leg in male about equal to length from snout to anus, extending considerably beyond the muzzle when stretched forward along body. Tail much longer than distance from snout to anus. Number of femoral pores highly variable, 13-19, averaging 15 (39 specimens). An irregular broad band of blue below the lateral fold from just posterior to axilla nearly to the groin; in this two black bands, straight, oblique forward, extending some distance on to the dorsolateral surface, narrowed where they cross the lateral fold and more or less broadened and rounded at their inferior ends (shape of bands extremely variable, the second may have extension toward groin); dorsal caudal surface in male without black bands (Dickerson 1919: 466). 
CommentSynonymy: Grismer (1999) synonymized Callisaurus draconoides splendidus with C. draconoides after examining species from the adjacent peninsula. These specimen cannot be distinguished clearly from the island populations of “splendidus”. BURT 1933 listed Callisaurus draconoides myurus RICHARDSON 1915 as a synonym of Callisaurus draconoides ventralis.

Type species: Callisaurus draconoides is the type species of the genus Callisaurus BLAINVILLE 1835. 
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