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Calumma brevicorne (GÜNTHER, 1879)

IUCN Red List - Calumma brevicorne - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaChamaeleonidae, Sauria, Iguania, Squamata (lizards) 
SubspeciesCalumma brevicorne brevicorne GÜNTHER 1879
Calumma brevicorne tsarafidyi BRYGOO & DOMERGUE 1970 
Common Names 
SynonymChamaeleon brevicornis GÜNTHER 1879
Chamaeleon gularis GÜNTHER 1879
Chamaeleo brevicornis brevicornis — BRYGOO & DOMERGUE 1970
Chamaeleo brevicornis — BRYGOO 1971
Calumma brevicornis brevicornis — KLAVER & BÖHME 1986
Calumma brevicornis — GLAW & VENCES 1994: 245
Calumma brevicornis — NECAS 1999: 238
Calumma brevicorne — LUTZMANN & LUTZMANN 2004

Calumma brevicorne tsarafidyi BRYGOO & DOMERGUE 1970
Chamaeleo brevicornis tsarafidyi — BRYGOO & DOMERGUE 1970: 319
Calumma brevicornis tsarafidyi — KLAVER & BÖHME 1997 
DistributionE/N Madagascar, elevation ~900 m.

tsarafidyi: Toliara Province,; Type locality: “Forêt du Tsarafidyi, sous-prefecture d'Ambohimahasoa, Madagascar”

Type locality: Madagascar (near Antananarivo, foret de Tsarafidyi, sous-prefecture d’Ambohimahasoa) Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
Reproductionoviparous 
TypesHolotype: BMNH 1946.8.21.41
Holotype: MNHN A-172 (396/C) [C.b. tsarafidyi] 
CommentChamaeleo brevicornis hilleniusi BRYGOO, BLANC & DOMERGUE, 1973 has been elevated to full species status.

Diagnosis.— A Calumma chameleon from Mada- gascar that differs from all congeners by the combination of a male single ossified rostral appendage projecting at least 2.5 mm (anterior to the mouth), which is laterally flattened, with three longitudinal scale rows at base in lateral view; adult SVL 90–170 mm; and a pair of large occipital lobes that are dorsally united to each other by up to 3 mm in adult. Calumma brevicorne is most similar to C. amber and C. crypticum, but can be distinguished by its male rostral append- age (laterally flattened, with three longitudinal scale rows at base in lateral view vs. dorso- ventrally flattened, with two longitudinal scale rows), l arge adul t SVL (110–170 mm vs . ,117 mm), and occipital lobe size (al ways reaches a level at or below ventral margin of eye vs. may only reach a level above ventral margin of the eye). [from RAXWORTHY & NUSSBAUM 2006].

The status of the subspecies Calumma brevicorne tsarafidyi (Brygoo and Domergue, 1970) has remained uncertain since it was first described. It is known from a single male specimen that differs from nominal Calumma brevicorne only by its bizarre indented and reduced occipital lobes (a condition unknown for any other chameleon species). The describing authors suggested this specimen might actually represent either a distinct species, or else an aberrantly developed
individual. C.J. Raxworthy examined the holotype (MNHN A-172), and RAXWORTHY & NUSSBAUM (2006) conclude that this is a typical adult male Calumma brevicorne with mutilated occipital lobes. The large size of this male (130 mm SVL) and form of the rostral appendage (with 5-mm projection) all fit diagnostic features typical of C. brevicorne. 
EtymologyNamed after Latin brevis = short and cornu = horn. 
References
  • Andreone F., Randrianirina J., Jenkins P.D. & Aprea G. 2000. Species diversity of Amphibia, Reptilia and Lipotyphla (Mammalia) at Ambolokopatrika, a rainforest between the Anjanaharibe-Sud and Marojejy massifs, NE Madagascar. Biodiversity and Conservation 9: 1587–1622
  • Barbour, Thomas 1918. Vertebrata from Madagascar. 2. Amphibia and Reptilia. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard 61 (14): 479-489. - get paper here
  • Boumans, Louis; David R. Vieites, Frank Glaw and Miguel Vences 2007. Geographical patterns of deep mitochondrial differentiation in widespread Malagasy reptiles. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 45 (3): 822-839 - get paper here
  • Brygoo, E. R. & C. A. Domergue 1970. Notes sur les Chamaeleo de Madagascar. C. brevicornis Günther, 1(7), C. tsarafidyi nov.subsp. Les hemipénis des Caméléons du groupe brevicornis. . Bull. Mus. nat. Hist. nat., Paris 42 (2): 311-320.
  • Brygoo, E. R. & C. P. Blanc & C. A. Domergue 1973. Notes sur les Chamaeleo de Madagascar. XI. Un nouveau Caméléon de l'Ankaratra: C. brevicornis hilleniusi n.subsp. . Bull. Soc. Zool. France 98 (1): 113-120.
  • Glaw ,F. & Vences, M. 1994. A Fieldguide to the Amphibians and Reptiles of Madagascar. Vences & Glaw Verlag, Köln (ISBN 3-929449-01-3)
  • Glaw, F. 2015. Taxonomic checklist of chameleons (Squamata: Chamaeleonidae). Vertebrate Zoology 65 (2): 167–246 - get paper here
  • Günther, A. 1879. Description of four new species of Chamaeleon from Madagascar. Proc. Zool. Soc. London 1879: 148-150. - get paper here
  • Günther, A. 1881. Seventh Contribution to the Knowledge of the Fauna of Madagascar. Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (5) 7: 357-360. - get paper here
  • Krüger, Jens 1999. Neue Erkenntnisse zur Faunistik einiger Reptilien Madagaskars. Salamandra 35 (2): 65-76.
  • Lutzmann, N. & Lutzmann, H. 2004. Das grammatikalische Geschlecht der Gattung Calumma (Chamaeleonidae) und die nötigen Anpassungen einiger Art- und Unterartbezeichnungen. Reptilia (Münster) 9 (48): 4-5 (Addendum in issue 5: 13) - get paper here
  • Lutzmann, N.; Kremer, G.; van Steendam, N. & Flamme, A. 2004. Auf Chamäleonsuche entlang der Route National 2 von Antananarivo bis an die Ostküste bei Ambila-Lemaitso. [Madagascar]. Draco 5 (19): 50--55 - get paper here
  • Necas, Petr 1999. Chameleons - Nature's Hidden Jewels. Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt; 348 pp.; ISBN 3-930612-04-6 (Europe)<br />ISBN 1-57524-137-4 (USA, Canada)
  • Raxworthy, C.J. & Nussbaum, R.A. 2006. Six New Species of Occipital-Lobed Calumma Chameleons (Squamata: Chamaeleonidae) from Montane Regions of Madagascar, with a New Description and Revision of Calumma brevicorne. Copeia 2006 (4): 711-734 - get paper here
  • RAXWORTHY, C.J.; ENRIQUE MARTINEZ-MEYER; NED HORNING; RONALD A. NUSSBAUM; GREGORY E. SCHNEIDER; MIGUEL A. ORTEGA-HUERTA & A. TOWNSEND PETERSON 2003. Predicting distributions of known and unknown reptile species in Madagascar. Nature 426: 837 - 841
  • Schmidt, W.; Tamm, K. & Wallikewitz, E. 2010. Chamäleons - Drachen unserer Zeit. Natur und Tier Verlag, 328 pp. [review in Reptilia 101: 64, 2013] - get paper here
  • Van Beest, Piet 2004. Herpetologische waarnemingen op Madagascar - deel 1. Lacerta 62 (2):48-55 - get paper here
  • van Hoof, J. et al. 2006. Kameleons, een fascinerende hobby. Lacerta 64 (5-6): 1-96 - get paper here
  • Vences, Miguel; Glaw, Frank 1996. Die Chamäleons der Calumma brevicornis Gruppe. DATZ 49 (4): 240-245
  • Wolf, S. 2004. Reise in den Osten Madagaskars. Draco 5 (19): 22-29 - get paper here
  • Zimmermann, H. 2001. Das erste “deutsche” Naturschutzgebiet in Madagaskar, der “Drachenbaum-Regenwald Maromiza bei Andasibe und seine Herpetofauna. Herpetofauna 23 (134): 28-34 - get paper here
 
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