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Calumma vohibola GEHRING, RATSOAVINA, VENCES & GLAW, 2011

IUCN Red List - Calumma vohibola - Endangered, EN

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Higher TaxaChamaeleonidae, Sauria, Iguania, Squamata (lizards)
Common Names 
SynonymCalumma vohibola GEHRING, RATSOAVINA, VENCES & GLAW 2011 
DistributionCE Madagascar (Toamasina)

Type locality: littoral forest ‘Vohibola’ near the village Andranokoditra (18°35’22,9’’S, 49°13’50,6’’E, 9 m elevation), Toamasina Province, Région Antsinanana, central eastern Madagascar.  
TypesHolotype: ZSM 645/2009 (ZCMV 8915), adult male with incompletely everted hemipenes, collected on 13 April 2009 by P.-S. Gehring, F.M. Ratsoavina, B. Mathevon, E. Rajeriarison & F. Randrianasolo. Paratypes: ZSM 644/2009, ZFMK, SMF, ZMB. 
DiagnosisDiagnosis: A small-sized brown to bluish-grey chameleon (SVL 43.0-49.8 mm, TL 76.4-92.2 mm) that is characterised by a very short rostral appendage, a very low casque, the absence of axillary pits, presence or absence of a dorsal crest in males and a distinct stress colouration in the female (Fig. 3D), consisting of a dark reddish ground colouration with many irregular light blue spots. Calumma vohibola is a member of the C. nasutum group based on its small size, low casque, absence of gular and ventral crest, and presence of a soft, dermal unpaired rostral appendage. This new species differs from all the other species in this group by the very short rostral appendage (< 1 mm length in males, almost completely absent in females), which is > 1 mm (usually 2-3 mm) in males of all other species. Besides this unique combination of characters, C. vohibola differs from C. boettgeri (including the holotype ZSM 21/1923 of C. linotum as a synonym) and C. guibei by the absence of occipital lobes (vs. distinctly recognisable); from C. gallus by the very short and rounded rostral appendage in males (vs. a very long and pointed appendage in males), the absence of distinct axillary pits (vs. presence), the more heterogeneous scalation on the head (vs. more homogeneous); from C. fallax by the absence of a distinctly posteriorly raised casque (vs. presence), the absence of a parietal crest (vs. presence), the presence of upright spine like dorsal tubercles (vs. rounded tubercles) and the absence of clearly enlarged scales on the temple and casque (vs. presence). Calumma vohibola is most similar to C. nasutum which, however, has a longer rostral appendage which is also evident in the four syntypes MNHN 6643 and 6643 a, b, c of C. nasutum and the holotype SMF 22132 of C. radamanus, a junior synonym of C. nasutum. In addition, C. vohibola differs from C. nasutum, C. gallus and C. fallax, and, as far as known, from all other species of Calumma, by a substantial genetic differentiation (see section on molecular differentiation below). Calumma vohibola also shows distinct similarities to C. vatosoa (which has been hitherto assigned to the Calumma furcifer species group) but differs from this species by presence of a short rostral appendage (vs. complete absence), absence of axillary pits (vs. presence) and absence of greenish ground colour (vs. presence) [from Gehring et al. 2011]. 
Etymologynamed after the type locality. 
  • Gehring, Philip-Sebastian; Fanomezana M. Ratsoavina, Miguel Vences & Frank Glaw 2011. Calumma vohibola, a new chameleon species (Squamata: Chamaeleonidae) from the littoral forests of eastern Madagascar. African Journal of Herpetology 60 (2): 130-154 - get paper here
  • Glaw, F. 2015. Taxonomic checklist of chameleons (Squamata: Chamaeleonidae). [type catalogue] Vertebrate Zoology 65 (2): 167–246 - get paper here
  • Kwet, Axel 2012. Liste der im Jahr 2011 neu beschriebenen Reptilien. Terraria-Elaphe 2012 (3): 46-57 - get paper here
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