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Candoia carinata (SCHNEIDER, 1801)

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Higher TaxaBoidae (Candoiinae, Candoiidae), Henophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
SubspeciesCandoia carinata carinata (SCHNEIDER 1801)
Candoia carinata tepedeleni SMITH CHISZAR, TEPEDELEN & BREUKELEN 2001 
Common NamesPacific boa
carinata: New Guinea Tree Boa, Schneider's Bevelnosed Boa
tepedeleni: Tepedelen's Bevelnosed Boa 
SynonymBoa carinata SCHNEIDER 1801: 261
Boa variegata THUNBERG 1807
Candoia carinata — GRAY 1842: 43
Enygrus carinatus — DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1844: 479
Enygrus carinatus — GÜNTHER 1863: 398
Enygrus carinatus — BOULENGER 1893: 107
Enygrus carinatus — BOULENGER 1895: 31
Enygrus carinatus — DE ROOIJ 1917: 31
Enygrus carinatus — BARBOUR 1921: 109
Enygrus carinatus — KINGHORN 1928: 290
Enygrus carinatus — HEDIGER 1934
Candoia carinata — STIMSON 1969
Candoia carinata — MCDIARMID, CAMPBELL & TOURÉ 1999: 188
Candoia carinata — WALLACH et al. 2014: 147
Candoia carinata — REYNOLDS & HENDERSON 2018: 26

Candoia carinata carinata (SCHNEIDER 1801)
Boa carinata SCHNEIDER 1801: 261
Candoia carinata carinata — WIRZ 2003
Candoia carinata carinata — REYNOLDS & HENDERSON 2018: 26

Candoia carinata tepedeleni SMITH et al. 2001
Candoia carinata tepedeleni SMITH CHISZAR, TEPEDELEN & BREUKELEN 2001
Enygrus carinatus (part) — WERNER 1899: 373
Enygrus carinatus (part) — HEDIGER 1933: 15
Candoia carinata carinata (part): STIMSON 1969: 7 (Bismarck Archipelago).
Candoia carinata (part) — MCDOWELL 1979: 27-51
Candoia carinata tepedeleni SMITH et al. 2001
Candoia carinata tepedeleni — REYNOLDS & HENDERSON 2018: 26 
DistributionIndonesia (Sulawesi, Sangihe, Telaud, Moluccas, Misool, Batanta, Salawati, Angaur, Irian Jaya), Papua New Guinea (Bismarck Archipelago; northern Province: S slope Mt. Trafalgar, 9.2340°S, 149.1541°E, 223 m elevation; Lae) (Smith et al. 2001, Kraus 2013), Vanuatu (possibly introduced)

C. c. carinata: Sangihe, W Moluccas (Banda, Gora, Haruku), Irian Jaya (Miosool, Batanta, Salawati), Papua New Guinea, Bismarck Archipelago, Tanimbar (fide WIRZ 2003).

C. c. tepedeleni (SMITH et al. 2001): from Liki Island off the northern eoast of Irian Jaya eastward through the Admiralty Islands, New Britain, New Ireland and some adjacent islands, Bismarck Archipelago. Type locality: Rabaul, New Britain.

C. s. superciliosa: Belau.

C. s. crombiei: Ngeaur.

Type locality: not been reported previously, but is indicated as "Amboina" on a label with the lectotype. The specimen is redescribed and figured, and conforms with expectations for material from the vicinity of the type locality” (Böhme et al. 1998).  
TypesLectotype: ZFMK 35503; Paralectotype ZMB 1460; for extensive list of additional specimens see McDowell 1979.
Holotype: MCZ 72155, an adult male, Fred Parker collector; 1963 [tepedeleni]. 
DiagnosisDiagnosis and description of the genus: McDowell 1979: 9.

Diagnosis (tepedeleni): Candoia c. tepedeleni i8 a subspecies of C carinata, with which it agrees (and differs from C superciliosa) in having large dark blotches on sides (Fig. 6); 4-8 scales between enlarged supraoculars; scales in 2nd row of dorsals always (20) keeled at least on neck; subcaudals always (19) 48 or more; tailltotallength ratio usually .16 or more (88%, 15 of 17); and minimum interorbital count always (20) 7 or more. Candoia c. tepedeleni differs from the nominotypical subspecies in having 179 or more ventrals (90%, 18 of 20, vs 13%,6 of 47); ventrals plus caudals 229 or more (100% of 20, vs 11 %, 5 of 47); ventrals minus caudals 128 or more (68%, 13 of 19, vs 26%, 12 of 4 7); caudals 52 or more (79%, 15 of 19, vs 25%, 12 of 47); posterior scale rows 24 or 25 (68%,13 of 19, vs 31 %, 15 of 47); interorbitals 9 or more (65%, 13 of20, vs22%, 100f46); anteriorscalerows27 or 28 (90%, 18 of 20, vs 49%, 24 of 4 7); frequently 4 or 5 postrostrals instead of the standard 3 (50% vs 12%); internasals usually 3 or more (70% vs 31 %); scales between internasals and postrostrals 1-4, 45% (9 of 20) over 2 (vs 0-6, 22% [11 of 49] over 2).

Original description: see Bauer & Lavilla 2021

Detailed morphological description (carinata): McDowell 1979: 27 ff. 
CommentType species: Boa carinata SCHNEIDER 1801: 261 is the type species of the genus Candoia GRAY 1842.

Types: The lectotype of Boa carinata Schneider, 1801, has been rediscovered and is now ZFMK 35503, having been transferred in 1977 from the Gottingen Museum, its original location.

Type genus. Candoia Gray 1842 is the type genus (and sole genus) of the family Candoiidae Pyron et al. 2014.

Distribution: not listed for the Solomon Islands by McCoy 2015.

Higher taxa: Pyron et al. 2013 have erected the subfamily Candoiinae, and then in 2014 a new family, Candoiidae, for the genus Candoia. However, the Scientific Advisory Board of the Reptile Database has voted not to use this classification for the time being as it requires to split up the current Boidae into 6 different families. Paraphyly can equally be avoided by considering the Candoiiinae as a subfamily.

Habitat: partly arboreal (Harrington et al. 2018). 
EtymologyThe name carinata (Latin, carinate or keeled) alludes to the prominent keels characteristic ofthe species. At the time the name was proposed, the species was the only booid snake known with keeled scales.

Candoia carinata tepedeleni was named after a colleague of SMITH et al. (2001), “Kamuran Tepedelen, to whom we are indebted for initiation of the study of the Candoia carinata complex, and for providing critical live material for observation in captivity. The University of Colorado Museum is also indebted to him for donation of many exotic herpetozoa. He sets a high standard for maintenance of animals destined for herpetoculture and research. His camaraderie has expedited numerous projects at this institution and elsewhere.” 
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