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Caretta caretta (LINNAEUS, 1758)

IUCN Red List - Caretta caretta - Endangered, EN

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Higher TaxaCheloniidae (Carettinae), Testudines (turtles) 
Subspecies 
Common NamesE: Loggerhead
G: Unechte Karettschildkröte 
SynonymTestudo caretta LINNAEUS 1758: 197
Testudo marina GARSAULT 1764
Testudo cephalo SCHNEIDER 1783
Testudo nasicornis LACÉPÈDE 1788
Testudo caouana LACÉPÈDE 1788 (nom. subst. pro T. caretta L.)
Caretta nasuta RAFINESQUE 1814
Caretta atra MERREM 1820
Chelonia multiscutata KUHL 1820 (?)
Testudo corianna GRAY 1831 (ex errore)
Testudo caretta — CUVIER 1831: 16
Chelonia pelasgorum BORY 1833
Chelonia Caouana — DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1835: 552
Caouana elongata GRAY 1844
Thalassochelys corticata GIRARD 1858
Chelonia caretta — DYCE 1861: 351
Cephalochelys oceanica GRAY 1873 (?)
Thalassochelys cauana — BOETTGER 1880: 210
Thalassochelys caretta — BOULENGER 1886: 425
Thalassiochelys tarapacona PHILIPPI 1887 (?)
Thalassochelys caretta— BOULENGER 1889
Chelonia dubia BLEEKER 1889 (nomen nudum)
Chelonia polyaspis BLEEKER 1889 (nomen nudum)
Thalassochelys controversa PHILIPPI 1899
Caretta caretta — STEJNEGER 1904
Thalassochelys cephalo — BARBOUR & COLE 1906: 148
Caretta caretta caretta— MERTENS & MÜLLER 1928
Caretta caretta — STEBBINS 1985: 105
Caretta caretta — ENGELMANN et al 1993
Caretta gigas DERANIYAGALA 1933 (?)
Caretta caretta gigas — DERANIYAGALA 1939
Caretta caretta gigas — BRATTSTROM 1955
Caretta caretta gigas — STEBBINS 1985: 106
Caretta caretta — CONANT & COLLINS 1991: 76
Caretta caretta — GLAW & VENCES 1994: 229
Caretta caretta — COGGER 2000: 178
Caretta caretta — TTWG 2014: 341 
DistributionNesting: Aruba, Australia (Queensland, Western Australia),
Caribbean: Bahamas, , Bermuda, Bonaire, Cuba, Curacao,
Dominican Republic, Haiti, Montserrat
Central America: Belize, Costa Rica, Honduras, Mexico
South America: Brazil (Bahia, Espirito Santo, Rio de Janeiro, Sergipe), Colombia
Cape Verde, Cyman Islands,
Europe: Cyprus, France (Corsica), Greece, Italy
Africa: Egypt, Mauritania, Libya, Mozambique, Oman
Mioddle East: Israel, Lebanon, Jordan
Asia: Japan, China, Myanmar, Papua New Guinea (Trobriand islands),
Madagascar, New Caledonia, , Panama, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and The Granedines, Sierra Leone, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Syria, Tunisia, Turkey, Turks and Caicos, USA (Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Texas), US Virgin Islands, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Yamen;
Foraging: Albania, Algeria, Anguilla, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Bahrain, Barbados, British Virgin Islands, Canada, Chile, Comoros, Croatia, Djibouti, Dominica, Eritrea, Fiji, French Guiana, Gambia, Grenada, Guadeloupe, Guinea-Bissau, Guatemala, Guyana, India, Indonesia, Iran, Jamaica, Kenya, Malta, Martinique, Mauritius, Monaco, Montenegro, Morocco, Namibia, Netherlands Antilles (Bonaire, Saba, St. Eustatius), Nicaragua, North Korea, Pakistan, Peru, Philippines, Portugal, Puerto Rico, Qatar, Reunion, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Samoa, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Sint Maarten, Slovenia, Solomon Islands, Somalia, South Korea, Sudan, Suriname, Taiwan, Tanzania, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, United Arab Emirates, Uruguay, USA (California, Hawaii, Oregon), Vietnam, Western Sahara; Vagrant: Angola, Benin, Brunei, Cambodia, Cameroon, DR Congo, Ro Congo, Ecuador, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Ghana, Great Britain, Guinea, Iraq, Ireland, Ivory Coast, Kuwait, Liberia, Malaysia, Maldives, New Zealand, Nigeria, Thailand, Togo, Tuvalu (Rhodin et al., 2010) .

Pacific Ocean and Oceania, Solomon Islands, Fiji [McCoy 2000],

Africa: Kenya, Tunisia, Libya, Egypt, Israel, Eritrea, Tanzania (?), United Arab Emirates (UAE), Somalia, Mauritania, South Africa, tropical western Africa, Cameroon, Madagascar

Asia: Indian and Atlantic oceans, Japan, Gulf of Thailand,
India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Maldives, Vietnam

Europe: British Isles, England, United Kingdom, Italy [E. RAZZETTI, pers. comm.], Greece (Corfu), France
Turkey [Basoglu 1973], Portugal, Mediterranean seas (Adriatic Sea: Croatia)

Australia (North Territory, Queensland, Tasmania, West Australia)

Americas: Canada (Newfoundland), USA (incl. New York), SE Mexico (Yucatan, Campeche, Quintana Roo, Tabasco, Baja California), Belize, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama, Colombia [Castro,F. (pers. comm.)], Caribbean, Chile, Argentina,

caretta: Atlantic Ocean
gigas: Indian and Pacific Ocean

acording to the 1994 IUCN Red List of Threatened Animals:
EC/NE/NW/SE/SW/WC Atlantic, E/W Indian Ocean,
Mediterranean and Black Sea, EC/NE/NW/SE/SW/WC Pacific,
Angola, Australia, Bahamas, Bangladesh, Belize, Brazil,
Cape Verde, Cayman Islands, China, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Cyprus,
Dominican Republic, Egypt, Greece, Grenada, Guadeloupe, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, India, Indonesia, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Libya,
Madagascar, Mexico, Montserrat, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar (= Burma), Namibia, New Caledonia, Nicaragua, Oman, Panama, Papua New Guinea,
Philippines, Puerto Rico, Senegal, South Africa, Sri Lanka, St Lucia,
Turkey, Turks and Caicos Islands,
USA (Alaska, Washington, Western Atlantic: Maine, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Connecticut, New Jersey, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Florida),
Venezuela, Virgin Islands (British)

Two finds in waters of Russia are known: in the Barents Sea's Kolsky Bay and in the Sea of Japan's Peter the Great Bay (fide KHALIKOV, pers. comm.)

Type locality: “Americanas” Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
TypesHolotype: Unknown 
CommentSynonymy: According to BRONGERSMA (1961) Caretta caretta gigas is a synonym of Caretta caretta.

Habitat: marine.

Conservation status: endangered

Reproduction: oviparous. FRITZ (1995) reports hybrids between Caretta caretta and Eretmochelys imbricata. BARBER et al. (2003) confirmed natural hybridization between a Kemp’s ridley (Lepidochelys kempii) and loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta) by molecular analysis.

Type species: Caretta nasuta RAFINESQUE 1814 is the type species of the genus Caretta RAFINESQUE 1814: 66. 
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