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Carinascincus ocellatus (GRAY, 1845)

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Higher TaxaScincidae, Eugongylinae (Eugongylini), Scincoidea, Sauria, Squamata (lizards)
Common NamesE: Ocellated Cool-skink, Ocellated Skink
G: Gefleckter Skink 
SynonymMocoa ocellata GRAY 1845: 82 (part.)
Lygosoma hieroglyphicum DUMÉRIL & DUMÉRIL 1851: 166
Leiolopisma ocellatum — GREER 1974
Leiolopisma ocellatum — GREER 1982
Carinascincus ocellatum — WELLS & WELLINGTON 1985: 24
Pseudemoia ocellata — FRANK & RAMUS 1995
Niveoscincus ocellatus — HUTCHINSON et al. 1990
Niveoscincus ocellatus — MELVILLE & SWAIN 2000
Niveoscincus ocellata — COGGER 2000: 566
Carinascincus ocellatus — GREER 2005 (online)
Carinascincus ocellatus — COUPER et al. 2006: 380
Niveoscincus ocellatus — WILSON & SWAN 2013
Carinascincus ocellatus — COGGER 2014: 428 
DistributionAustralia (Tasmania)

Type locality: Australia [lectotype]  
Reproductionovovivparous (placentotrophic); shows temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD, Gruber et al. 2017). C. ocellatus is the only known reptile that is polymorphic for sex determination system: in a highland population, sex is determined genetically, whereas in a lowland population, offspring sex ratio is influenced by temperature (Hill et al. 2018). 
TypesLectotype: BMNH 1946.8.10.83, from Australia., designated by Rawlinson, in preparation (fide COGGER 1983). Of the paralectotypes, BMNH 1946.8.16.44-46 are referable to this species, but for BMNH 1946.8.10.78 see Leiolopisma metallicum (O’ Shaughnessy, 1874).
Syntypes: MNHP 3012 (3 specimens), from Hobart, Tasmania [Lygosoma hieroglyphicum]. 
CommentHabitat: Saxicolous, boulder fields in wet heathlands, rocky slopes in sclerophyll woodlands, elevation 40-1000 m. 
EtymologyPresumably named after the Latin ocellus (little eye) plus -atus (possession of), referring to the spotted coloration. (G. Shea, pers. comm., 9 Feb 2024) 
  • Baehr, M. 1976. Beiträge zur Verbreitung und Ökologie tasmanischer Reptilien. Stuttgarter Beitr. Naturk. (A) 292: 1-24 - get paper here
  • Cogger, H. G. 2014. Reptiles and Amphibians of Australia, 7th ed. CSIRO Publishing, xxx + 1033 pp. - get paper here
  • Cogger, H.G. 2000. Reptiles and Amphibians of Australia, 6th ed. Ralph Curtis Publishing, Sanibel Island, 808 pp.
  • Couper, P., Covacevich, J., Amey, A. & Baker, A. 2006. The genera of skinks (Family Scincidae) of Australia and its island territories: diversity, distribution and identification. in: Merrick, J.R., Archer, M., Hickey, G.M. & Lee, M.S.Y. (eds.). Evolution and Zoogeography of Australasian Vertebrates. Australian Scientific Publishing, Sydney, pp. 367-384
  • Duméril, A.M.C. & A. H. A. Duméril 1851. Catalogue méthodique de la collection des reptiles du Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle de Paris. Gide et Baudry/Roret, Paris, 224 pp.
  • Gomard, Guillaume 2015. Tigerottern: eine Einladung zum Kennenlernen der Reptilien Tasmaniens. Terraria-Elaphe 2015 (4): 44-51 - get paper here
  • Gray, J. E. 1845. Catalogue of the specimens of lizards in the collection of the British Museum. Trustees of die British Museum/Edward Newman, London: xxvii + 289 pp. - get paper here
  • Greer, Allen E. 1982. A new species of Leiolopisma (Lacertilia: Scincidae) from Western Australia. Rec. Austral. Mus. 34 (12): 549-573 - get paper here
  • Gruber, J., Cunningham, G. D., While, G. M. and Wapstra, E. 2017. Disentangling sex allocation in a viviparous reptile with temperature-dependent sex determination: a multifactorial approach. J. Evol. Biol.. Accepted Author Manuscript. doi:10.1111/jeb.13219 - get paper here
  • Hill, P., Shams, F., Burridge, C. P., Wapstra, E., & Ezaz, T. 2021. Differences in Homomorphic Sex Chromosomes Are Associated with Population Divergence in Sex Determination in Carinascincus ocellatus (Scincidae: Lygosominae). Cells, 10(2), 291 - get paper here
  • Hill, Peta L; Christopher P Burridge, Tariq Ezaz, Erik Wapstra 2018. Conservation of Sex-Linked Markers among Conspecific Populations of a Viviparous Skink, Niveoscincus ocellatus, Exhibiting Genetic and Temperature-Dependent Sex Determination. Genome Biology and Evolution 10 (4): 1079–1087 [preprint published in bioRxiv] - get paper here
  • HILL, PETA; WHILE, GEOFFREY M., BURRIDGE, CHRISTOPHER P., EZAZ, TARIQ, MUNCH, KIRKE L., MCVARISH, MARY, & WAPSTRA, ERIK. 2022. Supplementary material from ‘Sex reversal explains some, but not all, climate mediated sex ratio variation within a viviparous reptile’. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 1–8. - get paper here
  • Hutchinson M N; Donnellan S C; Baverstock P R; Krieg M; Simms S; Burgin S 1990. Immunological relationships and generic revision of the Australian lizards assigned to the genus Leiolopisma (Scincidae: Lygosominae). Australian Journal of Zoology 38 (5): 535-554 - get paper here
  • Hutchinson,M.D. & Schwaner,T.D. 1991. Genetic relationships among the Tasmanian scincid lizards of the genus Niveoscincus. Journal of Herpetology 25 (1): 49-58 - get paper here
  • Kreger, KM, Shaban, B, Wapstra, E, Burridge, CP. 2020. Phylogeographic parallelism: Concordant patterns in closely related species illuminate underlying mechanisms in the historically glaciated Tasmanian landscape. J Biogeogr. 2020; 47: 1674–1686 - get paper here
  • Leal, Francisca and Martha Patricia Ramírez-Pinilla 2010. Evolution and development of the extraembryonic membranes in lizards: Heterochronies and placentotrophy. Herp. Cons. Biol. 5 (2) - get paper here
  • Melville, Jane; Swain, Roy 2000. Evolutionary relationships between morphology, performance and habitat openness in the lizard genus Niveoscincus (Scincidae: Lygosominae). Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 70: 667–683. - get paper here
  • Melville,J. & SWAIN,R. 2000. Mitochondrial DNA-sequence based phylogeny and biogeography of the snow skinks (Squamata: Scincidae: Niveoscincus) of Tasmania. Herpetologica 56 (2): 196-208 - get paper here
  • Rawlinson, P. A. 1974. Biogeography and ecology of the reptiles of Tasmania and the Bass Strait area. In: Williams, W. D. (ed.) Biogeography and Ecology in Tasmania,Chapt. 11. The Hague: Junk, pp. 291-338 - get paper here
  • Whiteley, S. L., Weisbecker, V., Georges, A., Gauthier, A. R. G., Whitehead, D. L., & Holleley, C. E. 2018. Developmental asynchrony and antagonism of sex determination pathways in a lizard with temperature-induced sex reversal. Scientific Reports, 8(1), 14892 - get paper here
  • Wilson, S. & Swan, G. 2010. A complete guide to reptiles of Australia, 3rd ed. Chatswood: New Holland, 558 pp.
  • Wu, Q., Fong, C.K., Thompson, M.B. and Murphy, C.R. 2014. Changes to the uterine epithelium during the reproductive cycle of two viviparous lizard species (Niveoscincus spp.). Acta Zoologica (Stockholm) 96: 497–509, DOI: 10.1111/azo.12096 - get paper here
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