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Cemophora coccinea (BLUMENBACH, 1788)

IUCN Red List - Cemophora coccinea - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaColubridae, Colubrinae, Lampropeltini, Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes) 
SubspeciesCemophora coccinea coccinea (BLUMENBACH 1788)
Cemophora coccinea copei JAN 1863 
Common NamesE: Scarlet Snake
coccinea: Florida Scarlet Snake
copei: Northern Scarlet Snake
lineri: Texas Scarlet Snake
G: Scharlachnatter 
SynonymColuber coccineus BLUMENBACH 1788: 11
Coluber dumfrisiensis SOWERBY 1804
Natrix dumfrisiensis — FLEMING 1828
Coluber dumfrisiensis — BELL 1939
Coronella coccinea — DE FILIPPI 1840: 177
Heterodon coccineus — DE FILIPPI 1840: 182
Rhinostoma coccineus — HOLBROOK 1842: 125
Simotes coccineus — DUMÉRIL, BIBRON & DUMÉRIL 1854: 637
Cemophora coccinea — COPE 1860: 244
Cemophora coccinea — JAN 1865
Coronella coccinea — JAN 1866
Cemophora coccinea — ALLEN 1932
Cemophora coccinea — CONANT & COLLINS 1991: 213
Cemophora coccinea — CROTHER 2000: 57
Cemophora coccinea — CROTHER et al. 2012
Cemophora coccinea — WALLACH et al. 2014: 152

Cemophora coccinea coccinea (BLUMENBACH, 1788)
Cemophora coccinea coccinea — CROTHER 2000: 57
Cemophora coccinea coccinea — CROTHER et al. 2012

Cemophora coccinea copei JAN, 1863: 231
Cemophora Copei — JAN 1865
Cemophora coccinea copei — PALMER & BRASWELL 1995
Cemophora coccinea copei — CROTHER 2000: 57
Cemophora coccinea copei — TENNANT & BARTLETT 2000: 450
Cemophora coccinea copei — CROTHER et al. 2012
Cemophora coccinea copei — ZAPPALORTI 2012
Cemophora coccinea copei — WEINELL & AUSTIN 2017 
DistributionUSA (S/E Texas, E Oklahoma, Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia, Florida, South Carolina, North Carolina, Tennessee, Kentucky, Illinois, Indiana, Virginia, Maryland, Delaware, New Jersey; disjunct populations in S Texas, New Jesey, and C Missouri)

coccinea: peninsular Florida; Type locality: Florida.

copei: rest of range.

dumfrisiensis: Type locality: Dumfrieshire (ierror, see comment); designated as Charleston, South Carolina, by K.P. Schmidt 1954. Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
TypesHolotype: ZMG, apparently lost fide Williams and Wilson, 1967: 112. 
CommentSubspecies: Cemophora coccinea lineri has been elevated to full species by Weinell & Austin 2017.

The data of publication was BLUMENBACH 1786 fide DUMÉRIL et al. 1854.

Type species: Coluber coccineus BLUMENBACH 1788: 11 is the type species of the genus Cemophora COPE 1860.

Diagnosis (genus): “Cemophora may be distinguished from other colubrid genera
in the Western Hemisphere by the following combination of characteristics: hemipenial shape and ornamentation, color pattern, enlarged rostral, scales in 19 rows at midbody; two apical pits, anal plate entire; and last two maxillary teeth distinctly enlarged and saber-like.” (Williams 1985)

Synonyms: dumfriesiensis: originally reported (erroneously) from Dumfrieshire, Scotland. Synonym of C. coccinea fide K. P. Schmidt 1954. Selected other synonyms from Wallach et al. 2014: 152. 
EtymologyCemophora is derived from the Greek words cemos (meaning muzzle, mouth, snout) and phoros (meaning bearing) and alludes to the pronounced rostral scale. The gender is feminine. 
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