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Centrochelys sulcata (MILLER, 1779)

IUCN Red List - Centrochelys sulcata - Vulnerable, VU

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Higher TaxaTestudinidae, Testudinoidea, Testudines (turtles) 
Subspecies 
Common NamesSahel Tortoise, African Spurred Tortoise 
SynonymTestudo sulcata MILLER 1779: plate 26
Testudo calcarata SCHNEIDER 1784 (nom. subst. pro T. sulcata Miller)
Testudo radiata [var.] senegalensis GRAY 1831
Testudo sulcata — DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1835: 74
Testudo sulcata — DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1854: 220
Testudo sulcata — SOWERBY 1872
Geochelone sulcata — PRITCHARD 1967
Centrochelys sulcata — DEVAUX 2004
Geochelone sulcata — VALVERDE 2004
Centrochelys sulcata — VALVERDE 2005
Geochelone sulcata — LE et al. 2006
Centrochelys (Geochelone) sulcata — BONIN et al 2006
Centrochelys sulcata — CHIRIO & LEBRETON 2007
Centrochelys sulcata — TRAPE, CHIRIO & TRAPE 2012
Centrochelys sulcata — TTWG 2014 
DistributionEthiopia, Eritrea, Sudan, Chad, Niger, Mali, S Mauritania, Senegal, Central African Republic (range generally lies along the southern perimeter of the Sahara Desert), Cameroon

Type locality: "India orientali" (in error); incorrectly listed as "Westindien" by Wermuth and Mertens 1961:224, and Wermuth and Mertens 1977:90.  
Reproductionoviparous. 
TypesHolotype: Not located; although ZSM 2753/0 has the notation 'lectotype' in the museum's species catalog: however, this number is three juveniles of Geochelol/e deniculata according to Crumly (pers. comm., cited in Iverson 1992) 
CommentLargest continental tortoise with up to 80 cm in carapace length (and up to 100 kg in males; females reach 60 cm and 50 kg).

Type species: Testudo sulcata MILLER 1779 is the type species of the genus Centrochelys GRAY 1872. 
References
  • Berg, M. van den et al. 2013. Traumterrarien. Reptilia (Münster) 18 (100): 16-27 - get paper here
  • Bonin, F., Devaux, B. & Dupré, A. 2006. Turtles of the World. English translation by P.C.H. Pritchard. Johns Hopkins University Press, 416 pp.
  • Chirio, L. & Lebreton, M. 2007. Atlas des reptiles du Cameroun. MNHN, IRD, Paris 688 pp.
  • Devaux, B. 2004. Centrochelys sulcata. The tortoise that weeps. Reptilia (GB) (37): 20-26 - get paper here
  • Duméril, A. M.C., G. BIBRON & A. DUMÉRIL 1854. Erpétologie générale ou Histoire Naturelle complète des Reptiles. Vol. 9. Paris, XX + 440 S. - get paper here
  • Duméril, A.M.C., and G. Bibron. 1835. Erpétologie Générale ou Histoire Naturelle Complète des Reptiles, Vol. 2. Librairie Encyclopédique de Roret, Paris, iv + 680 p. - get paper here
  • Ernst,C.H. and Barbour,R.W. 1989. Turtles of the World. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington D.C. - London
  • Herz, Mario 2010. Die Spornschildkröte Geochelone sulcata. Natur und Tier Verlag, 64 pp. - get paper here
  • Herz, Mario. 2014. Nachzucht der Spornschildkröte (Geochelone sulcata Miller, 1779) in der F3-Generation. Radiata 23 (4): 4-16
  • Hirth, H., and E.M.A. Latif. 1981. Morphometrics of the spurred tortoise, Geochelone sulcata, in the Sudan. Journal of Herpetology 15 (1): 120-121 - get paper here
  • Hughes, B. 1986. Longevity Records of African Captive Amphibians and Reptiles: Part 1: Introduction and Species List 1 - Amphibians and Chelonians. J. Herp. Assoc. Africa (32): 1-5 - get paper here
  • Kaplan, Melissa 1996. African spurred tortoises, Geochelone sulcata. Reptile & Amphibian Magazine 1996 (Sept./Oct.): 32-45
  • Kleiner, M. 1988. Zur Haltung und Zucht der Spornschildkröte eochelone sulcata (MILLER 1779). Herpetofauna 10 (52): 6-10 - get paper here
  • Largen, M.J.; Spawls, S. 2010. Amphibians and Reptiles of Ethiopia and Eritrea. Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt, 694 pp.
  • Le, Minh; Christopher J. Raxworthy, William P. McCord and Lisa Mertz 2006. A molecular phylogeny of tortoises (Testudines: Testudinidae) based on mitochondrial and nuclear genes. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 450 (2): 517-531 - get paper here
  • Livoreil, Barbara; and Van Der Kuyl, Antoinette C. 2005. Genetic Analysis of Mitochondrial DNA Variation in Eastern and Western African Spurred Tortoises (Geochelone sulcata). Chelonian Conserv. Biol. 4 (4): 951-954.
  • Loveridge, Arthur & Williams, Ernest E. 1957. Revision of the African Tortoises and Turtles of the Suborder Cryptodira. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard 115 (6): 163-557 - get paper here
  • Miller, L. 1779. Icones animalium et plantarum (Various subjects of natural history, wherein are delineated birds, animals, and many curious plants . . .). Letterpress, London. 10 pp. [published 1776-1782] - get paper here
  • Nickel, H. & ould Selah, D. 2006. African Spurred tortoises in Mauritania. Geochelone sulcata. Reptilia (GB) (48): 60-64 - get paper here
  • Padial, J. M. 2006. COMMENTED DISTRIBUTIONAL LIST OF THE REPTILES OF MAURITANIA (WEST AFRICA). Graellsia, 62(2): 159-178
  • Petrozzi, Fabio, Luca Luiselli, Godfrey C. Akani and Edem A. Eniang. 2015. Supplementary distribution data of Centrochelys sulcata (Miller, 1779), in northern Nigeria (West Africa). Herpetozoa 28 (1/2): 92-94
  • Petrozzi, Fabio; Emmanuel M. Hema, Djidama Sirima, Benoit Douamba, Gabriel Hoinsoudé Ségniagbeto, Tomas Diagne, Nioking Amadi, Giovanni Amori, Godfrey C. Akani, Edem A. Eniang, Laurent Chirio, and Luca Luiselli 2017. Habitat Determinants of the Threatened Sahel Tortoise Centrochelys sulcata at Two Spatial Scales Herpetological Conservation and Biology 12 (2) - get paper here
  • Romairone, Adrian 1996. Dimorfismo sexual en ejemplares adultos de Geochelone sulcata (Miller, 1779). Reptilia 2 (8): 50 - get paper here
  • Sindaco, R. & Jeremcenko, V.K. 2008. The reptiles of the Western Palearctic. Edizioni Belvedere, Latina (Italy), 579 pp. - get paper here
  • Sirsi, Shashwat, MacLaren, Andrew R. and Forstner, Michael R. J. 2017. Centrochelys sulcata (= Geochelone sulcata) (African Spurred Tortoise) Swimming Herpetological Review 48 (1): 172 - get paper here
  • Sow, Andack Saad; Duarte Vasconcelos Gonçalves, Fábio Vieira Sousa, Fernando Martínez- Freiría, Frederico Santarém, Guillermo Velo-Antón, Hamidou Dieng, João Carlos Campos, Saer Khayar Diagne, Zbyszek Boratyński, José Carlos Brito 2017. Atlas of the distribution of amphibians and reptiles in the Diawling National Park, Mauritania Basic and Applied Herpetology - get paper here
  • Sowerby, James de Carle and Edward Lear 1872. Tortoises, terrapins, and turtles: drawn from life.. London, Paris, and Frankfort :H. Sotheran, J. Baer & co. - get paper here
  • Spawls, S.; Howell, K.; Drewes, R.C. & Ashe, J. 2002. A field guide to the reptiles of East Africa. Academic Press, 543 pp. [reviews in HR 34: 396 and Afr. J. Herp. 51; 147] - get paper here
  • TTWG [Peter Paul van Dijk, John B. Iverson, Anders G.J. Rhodin, H. Bradley Shaffer, and Roger Bour] 2014. Turtles of the World, 7th Edition: Annotated Checklist of Taxonomy, Synonymy, Distribution with Maps, and Conservation Status. 000.v7. Chelonian Research Monographs (ISSN 1088-7105) No. 5, doi:10.3854/crm.5.000.checklist.v7.2014 - get paper here
  • Valverde, J. 2004. Giant tortoises. Reptilia (GB) (37): 11-19 - get paper here
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  • Vinke, T. & Vinke, S. 2005. The tortoises of Africa. Diversity through adaptation to extreme habitats. Reptilia (GB) (43): 21-25 - get paper here
  • Vinke, T. & Vinke, S. 2005. Die Lanschildkröten Afrikas - Vielfalt durch Anpassung an extreme Lebensräume. Reptilia (Münster) 10 (56): 26-28 - get paper here
  • Wake, D.B., & Kluge, A.G. 1961. The Machris Expedition to Tchad, Africa. Amphibians and reptiles. L.A. Co. Mus., Contrib. in Sci. no. 40: 1-12
  • Wermuth, H., and R. Mertens. 1961. Schildkröten, Krokodile, Brückenechsen. Gustav Fischer Verlag, Jena. xxvi + 422 pp.
  • Wermuth, H., and R. Mertens. 1977. Liste der rezenten Amphibien und Reptilien. Testudines, Crocodylia, Rhynchocephalia. Das Tierreich. Berlin. 100: i-xxvii, 1-174
  • Werning, H. 2004. Planung und Bau eines reptilienzoos: “Reptilium - Terrarien- und Wüstenzoo” in Landau entsteht. Reptilia (Münster) 9 (48): 80-85 - get paper here
  • Wilson, D.S. et al. 2003. Estimating age of turtles from growth rings: a critical evaluation of the technique. Herpetologica 59 (2): 178-194 - get paper here
 
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