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Cerrophidion godmani (GÜNTHER, 1863)

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Higher TaxaViperidae, Crotalinae, Serpentes (snakes) 
Subspecies 
Common NamesE: Godman's Montane Pit Viper
G: Godman-Berggrubenotter 
SynonymBothriechis godmanni GÜNTHER 1863
Lachesis godmani BOULENGER 1896
Bothrops godmani GÜNTHER 1863
Bothriechis trianguligera FISCHER 1883: 13
Trimeresurus godmani - POPE 1955
Porthidium godmani — CAMPBELL & LAMAR 1989: 315
Cerrophidion godmani - CAMPBELL & LAMAR 1992
Cerrophidion godmani — LINER 1994
Porthidium godmani — WELCH 1994: 101
Cerrophidion godmani — MCDIARMID, CAMPBELL & TOURÉ 1999: 274
Porthidium godmani — PORRAS & SOLORZANO 2006
Cerrophidion godmani — JADIN et al. 2011 
DistributionSE Mexico, Guatemala

Type locality: Totonicapam, Totonicapam, Guatemala (fide SMITH & TAYLOR 1950). Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
TypesHolotype: BMNH 
CommentVenomous!

Habitat: terrestrial

Distribution: populations from south of Guatemala have been described as a new species, C. sasai by JADIN et al. 2012. Map in JADIN et al. 2012

Type species: Bothriechis godmanni GÜNTHER 1863 is the type species of the genus Cerrophidion CAMPBELL & LAMAR, 1992.

Definition and diagnosis: Rostral wider than high, front surface flat; three preoculars, upper largest, entire, and squarish, lower forming posterior border of pit and excluded from orbit; single, large, flat, plate-like supraocular above eye; seven to 11 suprala- bials; eight to 12 infralabials; canthals and inter- nasals relatively large and flat; two to seven intersu- praoculars; crown of head covered with variably sized, flat or keeled scales; keeling prominent in parietal area; second supralabial discrete from prelacunal; supralabial and subocular series in contact or sepa- rated by single row of scales; 19–23 (mode 21) mid- dorsal dorsal scale rows; mid-dorsal scales at midbody moderately slender and pointed; 120–150 ventrals; 22–36 undivided subcaudals; tail spine straight, moderately long. Lateral edge of nasal broadly expanded, bone roughly quadrangular; frontal bones mostly flat, dorsal surface with slightly elevated margins, longer than wide; postfrontal large, not reaching frontal; transverse distance of postfrontal greater than its distance along parietal bone; posterolateral edges of dorsal surface of parietals forming low to moderately distinct raised ridge continuing posteriorly on pari- etal as low ridge; junction between parietal and pro- otic rounded to almost flat; squamosal extending to level posterior to posterior edge of exoccipital; ectop- terygoid about same length as expanded, flattened base of pterygoid (posterior to the articulation with ectopterygoid) with flat shaft gradually tapering pos- teriorly; dorsal surface of parietal roughly triangular to sometimes rounded; three to five palatine teeth; seven to 18 pterygoid teeth; eight to 16 dentary teeth; pterygoid teeth extending just posterior to level of articulation of pterygoid with ectopterygoid in C. god- mani, but not reaching this far back in congeners; maxillary fang relatively short, being about equal in length to height of maxilla; fang at rest extending to level of about middle of supralabial 5 or suture between supralabials 5–6 (after Campbell & Lamar, 2004 and JADIN et al. 2011).

Diagnosis. Similar to other Cerrophidion species, C. godmani s.s. is a medium-sized, blotched, terrestrial pitviper. The head is relatively long, the canthal ridge is dis- tinct and raised and two canthals are usually present. There are 3–7 scales (two in one specimen) across the top of the head between the supraoculars. The scales in the frontal region between supraoculars vary from being a single med- ian scale to small, keeled scales approximately of the same size. The population in southeastern Oaxaca is characterized by having a large median frontal scale occupying more than two-thirds of the distance between the supraoculars; in all other populations individuals have median frontals that are undifferentiated from adjacent scales or that occupy less than half the distance between supraoculars. The supraoculars are broad and the nasal is divided. There are 2–5 prefoveals, a single prelacunal, no lacunolabials, a single loreal, 0–2 subfoveals, 3 preoculars, 8–11 supralabials (usually 9), 9–13 infralabials (usually 10 or 11), 132–150 ventrals (x = 140.57), 22–36 (x = 28.69) undivided subcaudals with no significant sexual dimorphism, and usually 21 middorsal scale rows. The cloacal scute is undivided. The tail is relatively short and non-prehensile [JADIN et al. 2012]. 
EtymologyEtymology (genus): The generic name comes from the Spanish cerro, meaning mountain, an allusion to the habitat, and the Greek ophidion, meaning small snake (Campbell & Lamar, 1992). 
References
  • Campbell, J. A. 1985. A new species of highland pit viper of the genus Bothrops from southern México. Journal of Herpetology 19 (1): 48-54. - get paper here
  • Campbell, J.A. & Lamar, W.W. 1989. The Venomous Reptiles of Latin America. Comstock Publishing/Cornell University Press, Ithaca
  • Campbell,J.A. & Lamar,W.W. 1992. Taxonomic status of miscellaneous Neotropical viperids, with the description of a new genus. Occ. Papers Mus. Texas Tech. Univ. 153: 1-31
  • Casas-Andreu, G., F.R. Méndez-De la Cruz and X. Aguilar-Miguel. 2004. Anfibios y Reptiles; pp. 375–390, in A.J.M. García-Mendoza, J. Ordoñez and M. Briones-Salas (ed.). Biodiversidad de Oaxaca. Instituto de Biología, UNAM-Fondo Oaxaqueño para la Conservación de la Naturaleza-World Wildlife Fund, México, D. F.
  • Fischer, J. G. 1883. Beschreibungen neuer Reptilien. Jahresber. Naturhist. Mus. Hamburg 1882: 1-15
  • Günther. A. 1863. Third account of new species of snakes in the collection of the British Museum. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (3) 12: 348 - 365 - get paper here
  • Jadin, R.C., Townsend, J.H., Castoe, T.A. & Campbell, J.A. 2012. Cryptic diversity in disjunct populations of Middle American Montane Pitvipers: a systematic reassessment of Cerrophidion godmani. Zoologica Scripta, doi:10.1111/j.1463-6409.2012.00547.x
  • JADIN, ROBERT C.; ERIC N. SMITH and JONATHAN A. CAMPBELL 2011. Unravelling a tangle of Mexican serpents: a systematic revision of highland pitvipers. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 163: 943–958
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  • McDiarmid,R.W.; Campbell,J.A. & Touré,T.A. 1999. Snake species of the world. Vol. 1. Herpetologists’ League, 511 pp.
  • MELÉNDEZ, Lester 2012. Vorsicht vor Werkzeugkisten und Lüftungslöchern. Terraria Elaphe 2012 (6): 38-39 - get paper here
  • Mertens, R. 1952. Die Amphibien und Reptilien von El Salvador. Abh. senckenb. naturf. Ges. (Frankfurt) (No. 487): 120 pp.
  • Parkinson,C.L. 1999. Molecular systematics and biogeographical history of pitvipers as determined by mitochondrial ribosomal DNA sequences. Copeia 1999 (3): 576-586 - get paper here
  • Pope, C. H. 1955. The Reptile World. A natural history of the snakes, lizards, turtles, and crocodilians. Alfred A. Knopf, xiii + 325 pp.
  • Porras, L.W. & Solórzano, A. 2006. Die Schlangen Costa Ricas. Reptilia (Münster) 11 (61): 20-27 - get paper here
  • Porras, L.W. & Solórzano, A. 2006. Costa Rica’s venomous snakes. Reptilia (GB) (48): 11-17 - get paper here
  • Sasa, Mahmood 1997. Cerrophidion godmani in Costa Rica: A case of extremely low allozyme variation?. Journal of Herpetology 31 (4): 569-572 - get paper here
  • Savage, J.M. 2002. The Amphibians and Reptiles of Costa Rica: A Herpetofauna Between Two Continents, Between Two Seas. University of Chicago Press, 934 pp. [review in Copeia 2003 (1): 205]
  • Smith, Hobart M. & Taylor, Edward H. 1950. Type localities of Mexican reptiles and amphibians. Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull. 33 (8): 313-380 - get paper here
  • Wilson, L.D. & McCranie, J.R. 2003. The herpetofauna of the cloud forests of Honduras. Amphibian and Reptile Conservation 3 (1): 34-48 - get paper here
 
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