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Chalcides bottegi BOULENGER, 1898

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Higher TaxaScincidae, Scincinae, Scincoidea, Sauria, Squamata (lizards) 
Subspecies 
Common NamesOcellated skink 
SynonymChalcides bottegi BOULENGER 1898: 719
Chalcides bottegi — NEUMANN 1905
Chalcides bottegi bottegi — LOVERIDGE 1936: 73
Chalcides ocellatus bottegi — DREWES 1972: 7
Chalcides ragazzii — PASTEUR 1981: 6
Chalcides ragazzii bottegi — PASTEUR 1981: 11
Chalcides ragazzii — SCHLEICH et al. 1996: 333
Chalcides ocellatus — SPAWLS 2001: 120
Chalcides bottegi — GREENBAUM et al. 2006: 78
Chalcides bottegi — SPAWLS et al. 2018: 166 
DistributionEthiopia, Kenya, Sudan

Type locality: Between Sancurar and Amarr (region northwest of Lake Chew Bahir),Ethiopia.  
Reproductionviviparous 
TypesHolotype: MSNG 28569 
DiagnosisDiagnosis: Chalcides bottegi is a large, pentadactyl species with extensively expanded vertebral scales, a long tail, a vertebral pale brown stripe with lateral, thin brown borders that spans the vertebrals and medial half of the paravertebrals, a cream stripe on the lateral sides of the dorsum, and an irregular brown stripe on the flanks; the dorsum, flanks, and tail are extensively covered with brown spots and white ocelli. Chalcides bottegi is distinguished from C. armitagei by the possession of pentadactyl limbs (tridactyl in C. armitagei), six supralabials (5 in C. armitagei), six infralabials (4 in C. armitagei), one postnasal (absent in C. armitagei), 81–92 ventrals (94–96 in C. armitagei), and 41–43 presacral vertebrae (50–51 in C. armitagei) (Caputo et al., 1995). Chalcides bottegi is distinguished from C. pulchellus and C. thierryi by having a vertebral pale brown stripe with lateral, thin brown borders that spans the vertebrals and medial half of the paravertebrals, a cream stripe on the lateral sides of the dorsum, and an irregular brown stripe on the flanks (no stripes in C. pulchellus and C. thierryi), and extensive brown spots with white ocelli on the body (no white ocelli on the body in C. pulchellus and C. thierryi). Differences among populations of C. bottegi, C. ocellatus and C. ragazzii are shown in Table 1. Chalcides bottegi is distinguished from C. ocellatus by having a vertebral pale brown stripe with lateral, thin brown borders that spans the vertebrals and medial half of the paravertebrals, a cream stripe on the lateral sides of the dorsum, and an irregular brown stripe on the flanks (no stripes or vertebral stripe spanning vertebrals, paravertebrals, and dorsals lateral to paravertebrals in C. ocellatus), always extensively expanded vertebral scales (usually unexpanded or slightly expanded in C. ocellatus), 22–24 scale rows around midbody (26–32 in C. ocellatus), and 41–43 presacral vertebrae (34–39 in all but the North African population of C. ocellatus). Chalcides bottegi is distinguished from C. ragazzii by having brown borders on each side of the pale brown vertebral stripe (bold dark brown borders on a pale brown or brown vertebral stripe in C. ragazzii; Fig. 7), always extensively expanded vertebral scales (usually unexpanded or slightly expanded in C. ragazzii), 81–92 ventrals (68–80 in C. ragazzii), and 41–43 presacral vertebrae (33–39 in C. ragazzii) [from GREENBAUM et al. 2006]. 
Comment 
EtymologyNamed after Captain Vittorio Bòttego, who collected the holotype. 
References
  • Beolens, Bo; Michael Watkins, and Michael Grayson 2011. The Eponym Dictionary of Reptiles. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, USA - get paper here
  • Boulenger, G. A. 1898. Concluding report on the late Capt. Bottego’s collection of reptiles and batrachians from Somaliland and British East Africa. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, (2) 18: 715-723 [1897] - get paper here
  • Drewes, R.C. 1972. Report on a collection of reptiles and amphibians from the Ilemi Triangle, Southwestern Sudan. Occ. Pap. Cal. Acad. Sci. (100): 1-14 - get paper here
  • Greenbaum, E.; Campbell, A.C. & Raxworthy, C.J. 2006. A revision of sub-saharan Chalcides (Squamata: Scincidae) with redescriptions of two East African species. Herpetologica 62 (1): 71-89 - get paper here
  • Loveridge, A. 1936. African reptiles and amphibians in the Field Museum of Natural History. Zool. Ser. Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Chicago, 22 (1): 1-122 - get paper here
  • Neumann, Oscar Rudolph 1905. Über nordost-afrikanische und arabische Kriechtiere. Zool. Jahrb. Syst., 22: 389-404. - get paper here
  • Pasteur,G. 1981. A survey of the species groups of the the old world scincid genus Chalcides. Journal of Herpetology 15 (1): 1-16 - get paper here
  • Schleich, H.H., Kästle,W., Kabisch, K. 1996. Amphibians and Reptiles of North Africa. Koeltz, Koenigstein, 627 pp.
  • Spawls, S.; Howell, K.; Drewes, R.C. & Ashe, J. 2002. A field guide to the reptiles of East Africa. Academic Press, 543 pp. [reviews in HR 34: 396 and Afr. J. Herp. 51; 147] - get paper here
  • Spawls, Steve; Kim Howell, Harald Hinkel, Michele Menegon 2018. Field Guide to East African Reptiles. Bloomsbury, 624 pp. - get paper here
  • Werner,F. 1919. Wissenschaftliche Ergebnisse der mit Unterstützung der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien aus der Erbschaft Treitl von F. Werner unternommenen zoologischen Expedition nach dem Anglo-Aegyptischen Sudan (Kordofan) 1914. IV. Bearbeitung de Denkschr. Akad. Wiss Wien, Math.-Naturw. Klasse 96: 437-509 - get paper here
 
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